Cyrus the Great/پادشاه کوردیش و ایرانی سلسله ی هخامنشی

Cyrus the Great kurdish and persian empirer/iran son of mandane of media   

 

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Cyrus the Great

King of Kings of Persia, King of Āryāvarta,[1][2] King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the Four Corners of the World[3] Cyrus II of Persia.jpg Reign 559 BC – 530 BC (30 years) Born 600 BC or 576 BC Birthplace Anshan, Persis Died December, 530 BC Place of death Along the Syr Darya Buried Pasargadae Predecessor Cambyses I Successor Cambyses II Consort Cassandane Royal House Achaemenid Father Cambyses I Mother Mandane of Media

Cyrus II of Persia (Old Persian: KUURUUSHA[4]Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش بزرگ c. 600 BC or 576 BC–530 BC[5]), commonly known as Cyrus the Great,[6] also known as Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire.[7] Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East,[7] expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia and the Caucasus. From the Mediterranean sea and Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen.[8] His regal titles in full were The Great King, King of Persia, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the four corners of the World. He also pronounced what some consider to be one of the first historically important declarations of human rights via the Cyrus Cylinder sometime between 539 and 530 BC.

The reign of Cyrus the Great lasted between 29 and 31 years. Cyrus built his empire by conquering first the Median Empire, then the Lydian Empire and eventually the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Either before or after Babylon, he led an expedition into central Asia, which resulted in major campaigns that were described as having brought "into subjection every nation without exception".[9] Cyrus did not venture into Egypt, as he himself died in battle, fighting the Massagetae along the Syr Darya in December 530 BC.[10][11] He was succeeded by his son, Cambyses II, who managed to add to the empire by conquering Egypt, Nubia, and Cyrenaica during his short rule.

Cyrus the Great respected the customs and religions of the lands he conquered.[12] It is said that in universal history, the role of the Achaemenid empire founded by Cyrus lies in its very successful model for centralized administration and establishing a government working to the advantage and profit of its subjects.[7] In fact, the administration of the empire through satraps and the vital principle of forming a government at Pasargadae were the works of Cyrus.[13] What is sometimes referred to as the Edict of Restoration (actually two edicts) described in the Bible as being made by Cyrus the Great left a lasting legacy on the Jewish religion where because of his policies in Babylonia, he is referred to by the people of the Jewish faith, as "the anointed of the Lord".[14][15]

Cyrus the Great is also well recognized for his achievements in human rights, politics, and military strategy, as well as his influence on both Eastern and Western civilizations. Having originated from Persis, roughly corresponding to the modern Iranian province of Fars, Cyrus has played a crucial role in defining the national identity of modern Iran.[16][17][18] Cyrus and, indeed, the Achaemenid influence in the ancient world also extended as far as Athens, where many Athenians adopted aspects of the Achaemenid Persian culture as their own, in a reciprocal cultural exchange.[19]

Etymology

 
"I am Cyrus the king, an Achaemenid." in Old Persian, Elamite and Aramaic languages. It is carved in a column in Pasargadae.

The name Cyrus is a Latinized form derived from a Greek form of the Old Persian Kūruš. [20] The name and its meaning has been recorded in ancient inscriptions in different languages. The ancient Greek historians Ctesias and Plutarch noted that Cyrus was named from Kuros, the Sun, a concept which has been interpreted as meaning "like the Sun" (Khurvash) by noting its relation to the Persian noun for sun, khor, while using -vash as a suffix of likeness.[21] This may also point to a fascinating relationship to the mythological "first king" of Persia, Jamshid, whose name also incorporates the element "sun" ("shid").

Karl Hoffmann has suggested a translation based on the meaning of an Indo-European-root "to humiliate" and accordingly "Cyrus" means "humiliator of the enemy in verbal contest".[20] In the Persian language and especially in Iran, Cyrus's name is spelled as "کوروش بزرگ" or "Kūrošé Bozorg" which translates to Cyrus the Great. In the Bible, he is known as Koresh (Hebrew: כורש‎).[22]

 Dynastic history
The four winged guardian figure representing Cyrus the Great, a bas-relief found at Pasargadae on top of which was once inscribed in three languages the sentence "I am Cyrus the king, an Achaemenian."[23]
Standard of Cyrus the Great

The Persian domination and kingdom in the Iranian plateau started by an extension of

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