انجمن مرده ها | dead forum ()
Umar al-Suhrawardi/عمر سهروردی nevisande: - ۱۳٩٢/٢/۱

Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi (Persian:عمر سهروردى) (–1144-1234) was a Kurdish[1][2][3] Sufi from Chorasmia and nephew of Abu al-Najib al-Suhrawardi.

He expanded the Sufi order of Suhrawardiyya, that had been created by his uncle Abu al-Najib al-Suhrawardi, obtaining the support of the caliph.

Other transliterations: Shaykh Shihab al-Din ‘Umar al-Suhrawardi, Shaykh 'Abu Hafs al-Suhrawardi, Hadrat Shaykh Shihab al-Din `Umar b. `Abd Allah al-Suhrawardi.

 The Gifts of Deep Knowledge

He wrote the 'Awarif el-Maarif, the "Gifts of Deep Knowledge". This book was translated into English by Henry Wilberforce-Clarke and published as "A Dervish Textbook" in 1891. It was reprinted by Octagon Press in 1980.

 References

  1. ^ Muḥammad Kamāl, Mulla Sadra's Transcendent Philosophy, Ashgate Publishing Inc, 2006, ISBN 0-7546-5271-8, p. 12.
  2. ^ John Renard, "Historical dictionary of Sufism ", Roman & Littlefield, 2005. pg xxviii. excerpt: "Abu 'n-Najib 'Abd al-Qahir as-Suhrawardi, Persian shaykh and author, and scholar who thought Ahmad al-Ghazali, Najm al-Din Kubra and Abu Hafs 'Umar as-Suhrawardi
  3. ^ Qamar al-Huda, "Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi" in Josef W. Meri, Jere L. Bacharach, Medieval Islamic Civilization: L-Z, index Volume 2 of Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, Josef W. Meri, ISBN 0-415-96690-6. pp 775-776: "Shahab al-Din Abu Hafs 'Umar al-Suhrawardi belonged to a prominent Persian Sufi family and was responsible for officially organizing the Suhrawardi Sufi order"

 Bibliography

  • Ohlander, Erik, Sufism in an Age of Transition: Umar al-Suhrawardi and the Rise of the Islamic Mystical Brotherhood (Leiden, Brill, 2008) (Islamic History and Civilization, 71).

wikipedia

  nazarat()
شهبانو ماندانا/ Mandane of Media nevisande: - ۱۳٩٢/٢/۱

Mandane of Media

kurdish princess of iran/media

mother of Cyrus the Great

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

 

 

Mandana of Media (b. ca. 584 BCE) was a princess of Media and, later, the Queen consort of Cambyses I of Anshan and mother of Cyrus the Great,[1] ruler of the Persia's Achaemenid Empire.

Mandane in Herodotus' histories

According to Herodotus, Mandana was born to Astyages, King of Media and son of Cyaxares the Great, and Princess Aryenis of Lydia, daughter of Alyattes II, the father of Croesus of Lydia.

Shortly after her birth, Herodotus reports that Astyages had a strange dream where his daughter urinated so much that Asia would flood. He consulted the magi who interpreted the dream as a warning that Mandana's son would overthrow his rule.

To forestall that outcome, Astyages betrothed Mandane to the vassal Achaemenid prince, Cambyses I of Anshan, "a man of good family and quiet habits", whom Astyages considered no threat to the Median throne.

Astyages had a second dream when Mandane became pregnant where a vine grew from her womb and overtook the world. Terrified, he sent his most loyal court retainer, Harpagus, to kill the child. However, Harpagus was loath to spill royal blood and hid the child, Cyrus II (Cyrus the Great), with a shepherd named Mitradates.

Years later, Cyrus would defy his grandfather, Astyages, leading to war between them; a war that Cyrus would have lost, but for Harpagus' defection on the battlefield of Pasargadae, leading to the overthrow of Astyages, as the dream had forecast.

 Mandane in Xenophon's Cyropedia

Xenophon also gives reference to Mandane in his Cyropœdia (The Education of Cyrus). In this story, Mandane and her son travel to Astyages court, when Cyrus is in his early teens. Cyrus charms his grandfather, who includes the boy in royal hunts, while Mandane returns to her husband in Anshan. It is when Cyrus concocts a story that his father, Cambyses I, is ill and returns to visit him that Astyages comes after him and the battle is joined.

 Death

There are references to Mandana's death as 559 BC; however, as this year is considered the date of her husband's death (Cambyses I), it is unknown if that is the actual date of her death or when she changed status from Queen Consort to Queen Mother.

 Sources
  1. ^ J. Hedderwick & co (1809). Letters on ancient history. p. 80. 

External links

Reference to Mandane in Astyages' Life

wikipedia

  nazarat()
Cyrus the Great/پادشاه کوردیش و ایرانی سلسله ی هخامنشی nevisande: - ۱۳٩٢/٢/۱

Cyrus the Great

kurdish and persian empirer/iran

son of mandane of media

  

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

 

Cyrus the Great

King of Kings of Persia, King of Āryāvarta,[1][2] King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the Four Corners of the World[3]
Cyrus II of Persia.jpg
Reign 559 BC – 530 BC (30 years)
Born 600 BC or 576 BC
Birthplace Anshan, Persis
Died December, 530 BC
Place of death Along the Syr Darya
Buried Pasargadae
Predecessor Cambyses I
Successor Cambyses II
Consort Cassandane
Royal House Achaemenid
Father Cambyses I
Mother Mandane of Media

Cyrus II of Persia (Old Persian: KUURUUSHA[4] Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش بزرگ c. 600 BC or 576 BC–530 BC[5]), commonly known as Cyrus the Great,[6] also known as Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire.[7] Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East,[7] expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia and the Caucasus. From the Mediterranean sea and Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen.[8] His regal titles in full were The Great King, King of Persia, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the four corners of the World. He also pronounced what some consider to be one of the first historically important declarations of human rights via the Cyrus Cylinder sometime between 539 and 530 BC.

The reign of Cyrus the Great lasted between 29 and 31 years. Cyrus built his empire by conquering first the Median Empire, then the Lydian Empire and eventually the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Either before or after Babylon, he led an expedition into central Asia, which resulted in major campaigns that were described as having brought "into subjection every nation without exception".[9] Cyrus did not venture into Egypt, as he himself died in battle, fighting the Massagetae along the Syr Darya in December 530 BC.[10][11] He was succeeded by his son, Cambyses II, who managed to add to the empire by conquering Egypt, Nubia, and Cyrenaica during his short rule.

Cyrus the Great respected the customs and religions of the lands he conquered.[12] It is said that in universal history, the role of the Achaemenid empire founded by Cyrus lies in its very successful model for centralized administration and establishing a government working to the advantage and profit of its subjects.[7] In fact, the administration of the empire through satraps and the vital principle of forming a government at Pasargadae were the works of Cyrus.[13] What is sometimes referred to as the Edict of Restoration (actually two edicts) described in the Bible as being made by Cyrus the Great left a lasting legacy on the Jewish religion where because of his policies in Babylonia, he is referred to by the people of the Jewish faith, as "the anointed of the Lord".[14][15]

Cyrus the Great is also well recognized for his achievements in human rights, politics, and military strategy, as well as his influence on both Eastern and Western civilizations. Having originated from Persis, roughly corresponding to the modern Iranian province of Fars, Cyrus has played a crucial role in defining the national identity of modern Iran.[16][17][18] Cyrus and, indeed, the Achaemenid influence in the ancient world also extended as far as Athens, where many Athenians adopted aspects of the Achaemenid Persian culture as their own, in a reciprocal cultural exchange.[19]

Etymology

"I am Cyrus the king, an Achaemenid." in Old Persian, Elamite and Aramaic languages. It is carved in a column in Pasargadae.

The name Cyrus is a Latinized form derived from a Greek form of the Old Persian Kūruš. [20] The name and its meaning has been recorded in ancient inscriptions in different languages. The ancient Greek historians Ctesias and Plutarch noted that Cyrus was named from Kuros, the Sun, a concept which has been interpreted as meaning "like the Sun" (Khurvash) by noting its relation to the Persian noun for sun, khor, while using -vash as a suffix of likeness.[21] This may also point to a fascinating relationship to the mythological "first king" of Persia, Jamshid, whose name also incorporates the element "sun" ("shid").

Karl Hoffmann has suggested a translation based on the meaning of an Indo-European-root "to humiliate" and accordingly "Cyrus" means "humiliator of the enemy in verbal contest".[20] In the Persian language and especially in Iran, Cyrus's name is spelled as "کوروش بزرگ" or "Kūrošé Bozorg" which translates to Cyrus the Great. In the Bible, he is known as Koresh (Hebrew: כורש‎).[22]

 Dynastic history

The four winged guardian figure representing Cyrus the Great, a bas-relief found at Pasargadae on top of which was once inscribed in three languages the sentence "I am Cyrus the king, an Achaemenian."[23]
Standard of Cyrus the Great

The Persian domination and kingdom in the Iranian plateau started by an extension of the Achaemenid dynasty, who expanded their earlier domination possibly from the 9th century BC onward. The eponymous founder of this dynasty was Achaemenes (from Old Persian Haxāmaniš). Achaemenids are "descendants of Achaemenes" as Darius the Great, the ninth king of the dynasty, traces his genealogy to him and declares "for this reason we are called Achaemenids". Achaemenes built the state Parsumash in the southwest of Iran and was succeeded by Teispes, who took the title "King of Anshan" after seizing Anshan city and enlarging his kingdom further to include Pars proper.[7] Ancient documents[24] mention that Teispes had a son called Cyrus I, who also succeeded his father as "king of Anshan". Cyrus I had a full brother whose name is recorded as Ariaramnes.[7]

In 600 BC, Cyrus I was succeeded by his son Cambyses I who reigned until 559 BC. Cyrus the Great was a son of Cambyses I, who named his son after his father, Cyrus I.[25] There are several inscriptions of Cyrus the Great and later kings that refer to Cambyses I as the "great king" and "king of Anshan". Among these are some passages in the Cyrus cylinder where Cyrus calls himself "son of Cambyses, great king, king of Anshan". Another inscription (from CM's) mentions Cambyses I as "mighty king" and "an Achaemenian", which according to bulk[26] of scholarly opinion was engraved under Darius and considered as a later forgery by Darius.[27] However Cambyses II's maternal grandfather Pharnaspes is named by Herodotus as "an Achaemenian" too.[28] Xenophon's account in Cyropædia further names Cambyses's wife as Mandane and mentions Cambyses as king of Iran (ancient Persia). These agree with Cyrus's own inscriptions, as Anshan and Parsa were different names of the same land. These also agree with other non-Iranian accounts, except at one point from Herodotus stating that Cambyses was not a king but a "Persian of good family".[29] However, in some other passages, Herodotus's account is wrong also on the name of the son of Chishpish, which he mentions as Cambyses but, according to modern scholars, should be Cyrus I.[30]

The traditional view based on archaeological research and the genealogy given in the Behistun Inscription and by Herodotus[7] holds that Cyrus the Great was an Achaemenian. However it has been suggested by M. Waters that Cyrus is unrelated to Achaemenes or Darius the Great and that his family was of Teispid and Anshanite origin instead of Achaemenid.[31]

 Early life

The best-known date for the birth of Cyrus the Great is either 600–599 BC or 576–575 BC.[32] Little is known of his early years, as there are only a few sources known to detail that part of his life, and they have been damaged or lost.

Herodotus's story of Cyrus's early life belongs to a genre of legends in which abandoned children of noble birth, such as Oedipus and Romulus and Remus, return to claim their royal positions. Similar to other culture's heroes and founders of great empires, folk traditions abound regarding his family background. According to Herodotus, he was the grandson of the Median king Astyages and was brought up by humble herding folk. In another version, he was presented as the son of a poor family that worked in the Median court. These folk stories are, however, contradicted by Cyrus's own testimony, according to which he was preceded as king of Persia by his father, grandfather and great-grandfather.[33]

After the birth of Cyrus the Great, Astyages had a dream that his Magi interpreted as a sign that his grandson would eventually overthrow him. He then ordered his steward Harpagus to kill the infant. Harpagus, morally unable to kill a newborn, summoned the Mardian Mitradates (which the historian Nicolaus of Damascus calls Atradates), a royal bandit herdsman from the mountainous region bordering the Saspires,[34] and ordered him to leave the baby to die in the mountains. Luckily, the herdsman and his wife (whom Herodotus calls Cyno in Greek, and Spaca-o in Median) took pity and raised the child as their own, passing off their recently stillborn infant as the murdered Cyrus.[35][36] For the origin of Cyrus the Great's mother, Herodotus identifies Mandane of Media, and Ctesias insists that she is fully Persian but gives no name, while Nicolaus gives the name "Argoste" as Atradates's wife; whether this figure represents Cyno or Cambyses's unnamed Persian queen has yet to be determined. It is also noted that Strabo has said that Cyrus was originally named Agradates by his stepparents; therefore, it is probable that, when reuniting with his original family, following the naming customs, Cyrus's father, Cambyses I, names him Cyrus after his grandfather, who was Cyrus I.

Herodotus claims that when Cyrus the Great was ten years old, it was obvious that Cyrus was not a herdsman's son, stating that his behavior was too noble. Astyages interviewed the boy and noticed that they resembled each other. Astyages ordered Harpagus to explain what he had done with the baby, and, after Harpagus confessed that he had not killed the boy, Astyages tricked him into eating his own broiled and chopped up son.[37] Astyages was more lenient with Cyrus and allowed him to return to his biological parents, Cambyses and Mandane.[38] While Herodotus's description may be a legend, it does give insight into the figures surrounding Cyrus the Great's early life.

Cyrus the Great had a wife named Cassandane. She was an Achaemenian and daughter of Pharnaspes. From this marriage, Cyrus had four children: Cambyses II, Bardiya (Smerdis), Atossa, and another daughter whose name is not attested in the ancient sources. Also, Cyrus had a fifth child named Artystone, the sister or half-sister of Atossa, who may not have been the daughter of Cassandane. Cyrus the Great had a specially dear love for Cassandane. Cassandane also loved Cyrus to the point that on her death bed she is noted as having found it more bitter to leave Cyrus, than to depart her life.[39] According to the Chronicle of Nabonidus, when Cassandane died, all the nations of Cyrus's empire observed "a great mourning", and, particularly in Babylonia, there was probably even a public mourning lasting for six days (identified from 21–26 March 538 BC). Her tomb is suggested to be at Cyrus's capital, Pasargadae.[40] There are other accounts suggesting that Cyrus the Great also married a daughter of the Median king Astyages, named Amytis. This name may not be the correct one, however. Cyrus probably had married once, after the death of Cassandane, to a Median woman in his royal family.[41] Cyrus the Great's son Cambyses II would become the king of Persia, and his daughter Atossa would marry Darius the Great and bear him Xerxes I.

 Rise and military campaigns

The Median Empire, Lydian Empire, and Neo-Babylonian Empire, prior to Cyrus the Great's conquests

Median Empire

Though his father died in 551 BC, Cyrus the Great had already succeeded to the throne in 559 BC; however, Cyrus was not yet an independent ruler. Like his predecessors, Cyrus had to recognize Median overlordship. During Astyages's reign, the Median Empire may have ruled over the majority of the Ancient Near East, from the Lydian frontier in the west to the Parthians and Persians in the east.

In Herodotus's version, Harpagus, seeking vengeance, convinced Cyrus to rally the Persian people to revolt against their feudal lords, the Medes. However, it is likely that both Harpagus and Cyrus rebelled due to their dissatisfaction with Astyages's policies.[35] From the start of the revolt in summer 553 BC, with his first battles taking place from early 552 BC, Harpagus, with Cyrus, led his armies against the Medes until the capture of Ecbatana in 549 BC, effectively conquering the Median Empire.[42]

While Cyrus the Great seems to have accepted the crown of Media, by 546 BC, he officially assumed the title "King of Persia" instead. With Astyages out of power, all of his vassals (including many of Cyrus's relatives) were now under his command. His uncle Arsames, who had been the king of the city-state of Parsa under the Medes, therefore would have had to give up his throne. However, this transfer of power within the family seems to have been smooth, and it is likely that Arsames was still the nominal governor of Parsa, under Cyrus's authority—more of a Prince or a Grand Duke than a King.[43] His son, Hystaspes, who was also Cyrus's second cousin, was then made satrap of Parthia and Phrygia. Cyrus the Great thus united the twin Achamenid kingdoms of Parsa and Anshan into Persia proper. Arsames would live to see his grandson become Darius the Great, Shahanshah of Persia, after the deaths of both of Cyrus's sons.[44] Cyrus's conquest of Media was merely the start of his wars.[45]

Lydian Empire and Asia Minor

Croesus on the pyre. Attic red-figure amphora, 500–490 BC, Louvre (G 197)

The exact dates of the Lydian conquest are unknown, but it must have taken place between Cyrus's overthrow of the Median kingdom (550 BC) and his conquest of Babylon (539 BC). It was common in the past to give 547 BC as the year of the conquest due to some interpretations of the Nabonidus Chronicle, but this position is currently not much held.[46] The Lydians first attacked the Achaemenid Empire's city of Pteria in Cappadocia. Croesus besieged and captured the city enslaving its inhabitants. Meanwhile, the Persians invited the citizens of Ionia who were part of the Lydian kingdom to revolt against their ruler. The offer was rebuffed, and thus Cyrus levied an army and marched against the Lydians, increasing his numbers while passing through nations in his way. The Battle of Pteria was effectively a stalemate, with both sides suffering heavy casualties by nightfall. Croesus retreated to Sardis the following morning.[47]

While in Sardis, Croesus sent out requests for his allies to send aid to Lydia. However, near the end of the winter, before the allies could unite, Cyrus the Great pushed the war into Lydian territory and besieged Croesus in his capital, Sardis. Shortly before the final Battle of Thymbra between the two rulers, Harpagus advised Cyrus the Great to place his dromedaries in front of his warriors; the Lydian horses, not used to the dromedaries' smell, would be very afraid. The strategy worked; the Lydian cavalry was routed. Cyrus defeated and captured Croesus. Cyrus occupied the capital at Sardis, conquering the Lydian kingdom in 546 BC.[47] According to Herodotus, Cyrus the Great spared Croesus's life and kept him as an advisor, but this account conflicts with some translations of the contemporary Nabonidus Chronicle (the King who was himself subdued by Cyrus the Great after conquest of Babylonia), which interpret that the king of Lydia was slain.[48]

Before returning to the capital, a Lydian named Pactyas was entrusted by Cyrus the Great to send Croesus's treasury to Persia. However, soon after Cyrus's departure, Pactyas hired mercenaries and caused an uprising in Sardis, revolting against the Persian satrap of Lydia, Tabalus. With recommendations from Croesus that he should turn the minds of the Lydian people to luxury, Cyrus sent Mazares, one of his commanders, to subdue the insurrection but demanded that Pactyas be returned alive. Upon Mazares's arrival, Pactyas fled to Ionia, where he had hired more mercenaries. Mazares marched his troops into the Greek country and subdued the cities of Magnesia and Priene. The end of Pactyas is unknown, but after capture, he was probably sent to Cyrus and put to death after a succession of tortures.[49]

Mazares continued the conquest of Asia Minor but died of unknown causes during his campaign in Ionia. Cyrus sent Harpagus to complete Mazares's conquest of Asia Minor. Harpagus captured Lycia, Cilicia and Phoenicia, using the technique of building earthworks to breach the walls of besieged cities, a method unknown to the Greeks. He ended his conquest of the area in 542 BC and returned to Persia.[35]

 Neo-Babylonian Empire

Superimposed on modern borders, the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus's rule extended approximately from Turkey, Israel, Georgia and Arabia in the west to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Indus River (Pakistan) and Oman in the east. Persia became the largest empire the world had yet seen.

By the year 540 BC, Cyrus captured Elam (Susiana) and its capital, Susa.[50] The Nabonidus Chronicle records that, prior to the battle(s), Nabonidus had ordered cult statues from outlying Babylonian cities to be brought into the capital, suggesting that the conflict had begun possibly in the winter of 540 BC.[51] Near the beginning of October, Cyrus fought the Battle of Opis in or near the strategic riverside city of Opis on the Tigris, north of Babylon. The Babylonian army was routed, and on October 10, Sippar was seized without a battle, with little to no resistance from the populace.[52] It is probable that Cyrus engaged in negotiations with the Babylonian generals to obtain a compromise on their part and therefore avoid an armed confrontation.[53] Nabonidus was staying in the city at the time and soon fled to the capital, Babylon, which he had not visited in years.[54]

Two days later, on October 7 (proleptic Gregorian calendar), Gubaru's troops entered Babylon, again without any resistance from the Babylonian armies, and detained Nabonidus.[55] Herodotus explains that to accomplish this feat, the Persians, using a basin dug earlier by the Babylonian queen Nitokris to protect Babylon against Median attacks, diverted the Euphrates river into a canal so that the water level dropped "to the height of the middle of a man's thigh", which allowed the invading forces to march directly through the river bed to enter at night.[56] On October 29, Cyrus himself entered the city of Babylon and detained Nabonidus.[57]

Prior to Cyrus's invasion of Babylon, the Neo-Babylonian Empire had conquered many kingdoms. In addition to Babylonia itself, Cyrus probably incorporated its subnational entities into his Empire, including Syria, Judea, and Arabia Petraea, although there is no direct evidence of this fact.[58]

After taking Babylon, Cyrus the Great proclaimed himself "king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four corners of the world" in the famous Cyrus cylinder, an inscription deposited in the foundations of the Esagila temple dedicated to the chief Babylonian god, Marduk. The text of the cylinder denounces Nabonidus as impious and portrays the victorious Cyrus pleasing the god Marduk. It describes how Cyrus had improved the lives of the citizens of Babylonia, repatriated displaced peoples and restored temples and cult sanctuaries. Although some have asserted that the cylinder represents a form of human rights charter, historians generally portray it in the context of a long-standing Mesopotamian tradition of new rulers beginning their reigns with declarations of reforms.[59]

Cyrus the Great's dominions comprised the largest empire the world had ever seen.[8] At the end of Cyrus's rule, the Achaemenid Empire stretched from Asia Minor in the west to the northwestern areas of India in the east.[60]

 Death

The details of Cyrus's death vary by account. The account of Herodotus from his Histories provides the second-longest detail, in which Cyrus met his fate in a fierce battle with the Massagetae, a tribe from the southern deserts of Khwarezm and Kyzyl Kum in the southernmost portion of the steppe regions of modern-day Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, following the advice of Croesus to attack them in their own territory.[61] The Massagetae were related to the Scythians in their dress and mode of living; they fought on horseback and on foot. In order to acquire her realm, Cyrus first sent an offer of marriage to their ruler, Tomyris, a proposal she rejected. He then commenced his attempt to take Massagetae territory by force, beginning by building bridges and towered war boats along his side of the river Jaxartes, or Syr Darya, which separated them. Sending him a warning to cease his encroachment in which she stated she expected he would disregard anyway, Tomyris challenged him to meet her forces in honorable warfare, inviting him to a location in her country a day's march from the river, where their two armies would formally engage each other. He accepted her offer, but, learning that the Massagetae were unfamiliar with wine and its intoxicating effects, he set up and then left camp with plenty of it behind, taking his best soldiers with him and leaving the least capable ones. The general of Tomyris's army, who was also her son Spargapises, and a third of the Massagetian troops killed the group Cyrus had left there and, finding the camp well stocked with food and the wine, unwittingly drank themselves into inebriation, diminishing their capability to defend themselves, when they were then overtaken by a surprise attack. They were successfully defeated, and, although he was taken prisoner, Spargapises committed suicide once he regained sobriety. Upon learning of what had transpired, Tomyris denounced Cyrus's tactics as underhanded and swore vengeance, leading a second wave of troops into battle herself. Cyrus the Great was ultimately killed, and his forces suffered massive casualties in what Herodotus referred to as the fiercest battle of his career and the ancient world. When it was over, Tomyris ordered the body of Cyrus brought to her, then decapitated him and dipped his head in a vessel of blood in a symbolic gesture of revenge for his bloodlust and the death of her son.[61][62] However, some scholars question this version, mostly because Herodotus admits this event was one of many versions of Cyrus's death that he heard from a supposedly reliable source who told him no one was there to see the aftermath.[63]

Herodotus, also recounts that Cyrus saw in his sleep the oldest son of Hystaspes (Darius I) with wings upon his shoulders, shadowing with the one wing Asia, and with the other wing Europe.[64] Iranologist, Ilya Gershevitch explains this statement by Herodotus and its connection with the four winged bas-relief figure of Cyrus the Great in the following way:[64]

"Herodotus, therefore as I surmise, may have known of the close connection, between this type of winged figure, and the image of the Iranian majesty, which he associated with a dream prognosticating, the king's death, before his last, fatal campaign across the Oxus."

Ctesias, in his Persica, has the longest account, which says Cyrus met his death while putting down resistance from the Derbices infantry, aided by other Scythian archers and cavalry, plus Indians and their elephants. According to him, this event took place northeast of the headwaters of the Syr Darya.[65] An alternative account from Xenophon's Cyropaedia contradicts the others, claiming that Cyrus died peaceably at his capital.[66] The final version of Cyrus's death comes from Berossus, who only reports that Cyrus met his death while warring against the Dahae archers northwest of the headwaters of the Syr Darya.[67]

 Burial

Cyrus the Great's remains were interred in his capital city of Pasargadae, where today a limestone tomb (built around 540–530 BC[68]) still exists which many believe to be his. Both Strabo and Arrian give nearly equal descriptions of the tomb, based on the eyewitness report of Aristobulus of Cassandreia, who at the request of Alexander the Great visited the tomb two times.[69] Though the city itself is now in ruins, the burial place of Cyrus the Great has remained largely intact; and the tomb has been partially restored to counter its natural deterioration over the years. According to Plutarch, his epitaph said,

O man, whoever you are and wherever you come from, for I know you will come, I am Cyrus who won the Persians their empire. Do not therefore begrudge me this bit of earth that covers my bones.[70]

Cuneiform evidence from Babylon proves that Cyrus died around December 530 BC,[11] and that his son Cambyses II had become king. Cambyses continued his father's policy of expansion, and managed to capture Egypt for the Empire, but soon died after only seven years of rule. He was succeeded either by Cyrus's other son Bardiya or an impostor posing as Bardiya, who became the sole ruler of Persia for seven months, until he was killed by Darius the Great.

The translated ancient Roman and Greek accounts give a vivid description of the tomb both geometrically and aesthetically; The tomb's geometric shape has changed little over the years, still maintaining a large stone of quadrangular form at the base, followed by a pyramidal succession of smaller rectangular stones, until after a few slabs, the structure is curtailed by an edifice, with an arched roof composed of a pyramidal shaped stone, and a small opening or window on the side, where the slenderst man could barely squeeze through.[71]

Within this edifice was a golden coffin, resting on a table with golden supports, inside of which the body of Cyrus the Great was interred. Upon his resting place, was a covering of tapestry and drapes made from the best available Babylonian materials, utilizing fine Median worksmanship; below his bed was a fine red carpet, covering the narrow rectangular area of his tomb.[71] Translated Greek accounts describe the tomb as having been placed in the fertile Pasargadae gardens, surrounded by trees and ornamental shrubs, with a group of Achaemenian protectors called the "Magi", stationed nearby to protect the edifice from theft or damage.[71][72]

Years later, in the ensuing chaos created by Alexander the Great's invasion of Persia and after the defeat of Darius III, Cyrus the Great's tomb was broken into and most of its luxuries were looted. When Alexander reached the tomb, he was horrified by the manner in which the tomb was treated, and questioned the Magi and put them to court.[71] On some accounts, Alexander's decision to put the Magi on trial was more about his attempt to undermine their influence and his show of power in his newly conquered empire, than a concern for Cyrus's tomb.[73] Regardless, Alexander the Great ordered Aristobulus to improve the tomb's condition and restore its interior.[71] Despite his admiration for Cyrus the Great, and his attempts at renovation of his tomb, Alexander would eventually ransack Persepolis, the opulent city that Cyrus had helped build, and order its burning in 330 B.C.[74]

The edifice has survived the test of time, through invasions, internal divides, successive empires, regime changes and revolutions. The last prominent Persian figure to bring attention to the tomb was Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Shah of Iran) the last official monarch of Persia, during his celebrations of 2,500 years of monarchy. Just as Alexander the Great before him, the Shah of Iran wanted to appeal to Cyrus's legacy to legitimize his own rule by extension.[75] United Nations recognizes the tomb of Cyrus the Great and Pasargadae as a UNESCO World Heritage site.[68]

 Legacy

Cyrus the Great liberated the Hebrew exiles to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.

Cyrus has been a personal hero to many people, including: Thomas Jefferson, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and David Ben-Gurion.[76]

In scope and extent his achievements ranked far above that of the Macedonian king,
Alexander who was to demolish the empire in the 320s but fail to provide
any stable alternative.
—Charles Freeman in 'The Greek Achievement'[77]

The achievements of Cyrus the Great throughout antiquity are reflected in the way he is remembered today. His own nation, the Iranians, have regarded him as "The Father", the very title that had been used during the time of Cyrus himself, by the many nations that he conquered, as according to Xenophon:[78]

"And those who were subject to him, he treated with esteem and regard, as if they were his own children, while his subjects themselves respected Cyrus as their 'Father' ... What other man but 'Cyrus', after having overturned an empire, ever died with the title of 'The Father' from the people whom he had brought under his power? For it is plain fact that this is a name for one that bestows, rather than for one that takes away!"

The Babylonians regarded him as "The Liberator".[79]

The Book of Ezra narrates a story of the first return of exiles in the first year of Cyrus; for this, Cyrus is addressed in the Jewish Tanakh as the "Lord's Messiah". Glorified by Ezra, and by Isaiah, Cyrus is the one to whom "Yahweh, the God of heaven" has given "all the Kingdoms of the earth".[80]

Cyrus was distinguished equally as a statesman and as a soldier. Due in part to the political infrastructure he created, the Achaemenid empire endured long after his death.

The rise of Persia under Cyrus's rule had a profound impact on the course of world history. Iranian philosophy, literature and religion all played dominant roles in world events for the next millennium. Despite the Islamic conquest of Persia in the 7th century CE by the Islamic Caliphate, Persia continued to exercise enormous influence in the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, and was particularly instrumental in the growth and expansion of Islam.

Many of the Iranian dynasties following the Achaemenid empire and their kings saw themselves as the heirs to Cyrus the Great and have claimed to continue the line begun by Cyrus.[81][82] However there are different opinions among scholars whether this is also the case for the Sassanid Dynasty.[83]

Alexander the Great was himself infatuated with and admired Cyrus the Great, from an early age reading Xenophon's Cyropaedia, which described Cyrus's heroism in battle and governance and his abilities as a king and a legislator.[84] During his visit to Pasargadae he ordered Aristobulus to decorate the interior of the sepulchral chamber of his tomb.[84]

According to Professor Richard Nelson Frye, Cyrus – whose abilities as conqueror and administrator Frye says are attested by the longevity and vigor of the Achaemenian empire – held an almost mythic role among the Persian people "similar to that of Romulus and Remus in Rome or Moses for the Israelites", with a story that "follows in many details the stories of hero and conquerors from elsewhere in the ancient world".[85] Frye writes, "He became the epitome of the great qualities expected of a ruler in antiquity, and he assumed heroic features as a conqueror who was tolerant and magnanimous as well as brave and daring. His personality as seen by the Greeks influenced them and Alexander the Great, and, as the tradition was transmitted by the Romans, may be considered to influence our thinking even now."[85]

On another account, Professor Patrick Hunt states, "If you are looking at the greatest personages in History who have affected the World, 'Cyrus the Great' is one of the few who deserves that epithet, the one who deserves to be called 'the Great'. The empire over which Cyrus ruled was the largest the Ancient World had ever seen and may be to this day the largest empire ever."[86]

Religion and philosophy

Dhul-Qarnayn is thought to refer to Cyrus by some Qur'anic commentators.

Though it is generally believed that Zarathushtra's teachings exerted an influence on Cyrus's acts and policies, no clear evidence has been found that indicates that Cyrus practiced a specific religion. His liberal and tolerant views towards other religions have made some scholars consider Cyrus a Zoroastrian king,[87] however, other scholars emphasize the fact that Cyrus is known only to have honored non-Zoroastrian gods. The Cyrus Cylinder, for instance, appeals to the help of the Babylonian gods Marduk, Bêl, and Nabû:

'û-mi-Ša-am ma- h ar iluBel ù iluNabu Š a a-ra-ku ume-ia li-ta-mu-ú lit-taŠ-ka-ru a-ma-a-ta du-un-ki-ia ù a-na iluMarduk beli-ia li-iq-bu-ú Ša mKu-ra-aŠ Šarri pa-li- hi-ka u mKa-am-bu-zi-ia mari- Šu' (Cylinder,Akkadian language line:35)

'pray daily before Bêl and Nabû for long life for me, and may they speak a gracious word for me and say to Marduk, my lord, "May Cyrus, the king who worships you, and Cambyses, his son,' (Cylinder,English Translation line:35)

The policies of Cyrus with respect to treatment of minority religions are well documented in Babylonian texts as well as Jewish sources and the historians accounts. Cyrus had a general policy of religious tolerance throughout his vast empire. Whether this was a new policy or the continuation of policies followed by the Babylonians and Assyrians (as Lester Grabbe maintains)[88] is disputed. He brought peace to the Babylonians and is said to have kept his army away from the temples and restored the statues of the Babylonian gods to their sanctuaries.[12]

His treatment of the Jews during their exile in Babylon after Nebuchadnezzar II destroyed Jerusalem is reported in the Bible. The Jewish Bible's Ketuvim ends in Second Chronicles with the decree of Cyrus, which returned the exiles to the Promised Land from Babylon along with a commission to rebuild the temple.

'Thus saith Cyrus, king of Persia: All the kingdoms of the earth hath Yahweh, the God of heaven, given me; and He hath charged me to build Him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Whosoever there is among you of all His people – may Yahweh, his God, be with him – let him go there.' (2 Chronicles 36:23)

This edict is also fully reproduced in the Book of Ezra.

In the first year of King Cyrus, Cyrus the king issued a decree: 'Concerning the house of God at Jerusalem, let the temple, the place where sacrifices are offered, be rebuilt and let its foundations be retained, its height being 60 cubits and its width 60 cubits; with three layers of huge stones and one layer of timbers. And let the cost be paid from the royal treasury. Also let the gold and silver utensils of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezzar took from the temple in Jerusalem and brought to Babylon, be returned and brought to their places in the temple in Jerusalem; and you shall put them in the house of God.' (Ezra 6:3–5)

As a result of Cyrus's policies, the Jews honored him as a dignified and righteous king. He is the only Gentile to be designated as Messiah, a divinely appointed leader, in the Tanakh (Isaiah 45:1–6). Isaiah 45:13: "I will raise up Cyrus in my righteousness: I will make all his ways straight. He will rebuild my city and set my exiles free, but not for a price or reward, says Yahweh Almighty." As the text suggests, Cyrus did ultimately release the nation of Israel from its exile without compensation or tribute. Traditionally, the entire book of Isaiah is believed to pre-date the rule of Cyrus by about 120 years. These particular passages (Isaiah 40–55, often referred to as Deutero-Isaiah) are believed by most modern critical scholars to have been added by another author toward the end of the Babylonian exile (ca. 536 BC).[89] Whereas Isaiah 1–39 (referred to as Proto-Isaiah) saw the destruction of Israel as imminent, and the restoration in the future, Deutero-Isaiah speaks of the destruction in the past (Isa 42:24–25), and the restoration as imminent (Isa 42:1–9). Notice, for example, the change in temporal perspective from (Isa 39:6–7), where the Babylonian Captivity is cast far in the future, to (Isa 43:14), where the Israelites are spoken of as already in Babylon.[90]

Josephus, the first century Jewish historian, relates the traditional view of the Jews regarding the prediction of Cyrus in Isaiah in his Antiquities of the Jews, book 11, chapter 1:[91]

"In the first year of the reign of Cyrus, which was the seventieth from the day that our people were removed out of their own land into Babylon, God commiserated the captivity and calamity of these poor people, according as he had foretold to them by Jeremiah the prophet, before the destruction of the city, that after they had served Nebuchadnezzar and his posterity, and after they had undergone that servitude seventy years, he would restore them again to the land of their fathers, and they should build their temple, and enjoy their ancient prosperity. And these things God did afford them; for he stirred up the mind of Cyrus, and made him write this throughout all Asia: "Thus saith Cyrus the king: Since God Almighty hath appointed me to be king of the habitable earth, I believe that he is that God which the nation of the Israelites worship; for indeed he foretold my name by the prophets, and that I should build him a house at Jerusalem, in the country of Judea." This was known to Cyrus by his reading the book which Isaiah left behind him of his prophecies; for this prophet said that God had spoken thus to him in a secret vision: "My will is, that Cyrus, whom I have appointed to be king over many and great nations, send back my people to their own land, and build my temple." This was foretold by Isaiah one hundred and forty years before the temple was demolished. Accordingly, when Cyrus read this, and admired the Divine power, an earnest desire and ambition seized upon him to fulfill what was so written; so he called for the most eminent Jews that were in Babylon, and said to them, that he gave them leave to go back to their own country, and to rebuild their city Jerusalem, and the temple of God, for that he would be their assistant, and that he would write to the rulers and governors that were in the neighborhood of their country of Judea, that they should contribute to them gold and silver for the building of the temple, and besides that, beasts for their sacrifices."

Cyrus was praised in the Tanakh (Isaiah 45:1–6 and Ezra 1:1–11) for the freeing of slaves, humanitarian equality and costly reparations he made. However, there was Jewish criticism of him after he was lied to by the Cuthites, who wanted to halt the building of the Second Temple. They accused the Jews of conspiring to rebel, so Cyrus in turn stopped the construction, which would not be completed until 515 BC, during the reign of Darius I.[92][93] According to the Bible it was King Artaxerxes who was convinced to stop the construction of the temple in Jerusalem. (Ezra 4:7–24)

Some contemporary Muslim scholars have suggested that the Qur'anic figure of Dhul-Qarnayn is Cyrus the Great.[94] This theory was proposed by Sunni scholar Abul Kalam Azad and endorsed by Shi'a scholars Allameh Tabatabaei, in his Tafsir al-Mizan and Makarem Shirazi.

Statue of Cyrus the great at Olympic Park in Sydney

The historical nature of this decree has been challenged. Professor Lester L Grabbe argues that there was no decree but that there was a policy that allowed exiles to return to their homelands and rebuild their temples. He also argues that the archaeology suggests that the return was a "trickle", taking place over perhaps decades, resulting in a maximum population of perhaps 30,000.[95] Philip R. Davies called the authenticity of the decree "dubious", citing Grabbe and adding that J. Briend argued against "the authenticity of Ezra 1.1–4 is J. Briend, in a paper given at the Institut Catholique de Paris on 15 December 1993, who denies that it resembles the form of an official document but reflects rather biblical prophetic idiom."[96] Mary Joan Winn Leith believes that the decree in Ezra might be authentic and along with the Cylinder that Cyrus, like earlier rules, was through these trying to gain support from those who might be strategically important, particularly those close to Egypt which he wished to conquer. He also wrote that "appeals to Marduk in the cylinder and to Yahweh in the biblical decree demonstrate the Persian tendency to co-opt local religious and political traditions in the interest of imperial control."[97]

 Politics and management

Cyrus founded the empire as a multi-state empire governed by four capital states; Pasargadae, Babylon, Susa and Ekbatana. He allowed a certain amount of regional autonomy in each state, in the form of a satrapy system. A satrapy was an administrative unit, usually organized on a geographical basis. A 'satrap' (governor) was the vassal king, who administered the region, a 'general' supervised military recruitment and ensured order, and a 'state secretary' kept the official records. The general and the state secretary reported directly to the satrap as well as the central government.

During his reign, Cyrus maintained control over a vast region of conquered kingdoms, achieved through retaining and expanding the satrapies. Further organization of newly conquered territories into provinces ruled by satraps, was continued by Cyrus's successor Darius the Great. Cyrus's empire was based on tribute and conscripts from the many parts of his realm.[98]

Through his military savvy, Cyrus created an organized army including the Immortals unit, consisting of 10,000 highly trained soldiers.[99] He also formed an innovative postal system throughout the empire, based on several relay stations called Chapar Khaneh.[100]

Cyrus's conquests began a new era in the age of empire building, where a vast superstate, comprising many dozens of countries, races, religions, and languages, were ruled under a single administration headed by a central government. This system lasted for centuries, and was retained both by the invading Seleucid dynasty during their control of Persia, and later Iranian dynasties including the Parthians and Sassanids.[101]

On December 10, 2003, in her acceptance of the Nobel Peace Prize, Shirin Ebadi evoked Cyrus, saying:

I am an Iranian, a descendant of Cyrus the Great. This emperor proclaimed at the pinnacle of power 2,500 years ago that he 'would not reign over the people if they did not wish it.' He promised not to force any person to change his religion and faith and guaranteed freedom for all. The Charter of Cyrus the Great should be studied in the history of human rights.[102]

Cyrus has been known for his innovations in building projects; he further developed the technologies that he found in the conquered cultures and applied them in building the palaces of Pasargadae. He was also famous for his love of gardens; the recent excavations in his capital city has revealed the existence of the Pasargad Persian Garden and a network of irrigation canals. Pasargadae was place for two magnificent palaces surrounded by a majestic royal park and vast formal gardens; among them was the four-quartered wall gardens of "Paradisia" with over 1000 meters of channels made out of carved limestone, designed to fill small basins at every 16 meters and water various types of wild and domestic flora. The design and concept of Paradisia were exceptional and have been used as a model for many ancient and modern parks, ever since.[103]

Cyrus's legacy has been felt even as far away as Iceland[104] and colonial America. Many of the forefathers of the United States of America sought inspiration from Cyrus the Great through works such as Cyropaedia. Thomas Jefferson, for example, owned a copy.[105]

The English physician and philosopher Sir Thomas Browne penned a discourse entitled The Garden of Cyrus in 1658 in which Cyrus is depicted as an archetypal "wise ruler" – at a time when the Protectorate of Cromwell occurred in English history.

"Cyrus the elder brought up in Woods and Mountains, when time and power enabled, pursued the dictate of his education, and brought the treasures of the field into rule and circumscription. So nobly beautifying the hanging Gardens of Babylon, that he was also thought to be the author thereof."

Cyrus cylinder

The Cyrus cylinder, a contemporary cuneiform script proclaiming Cyrus as legitimate king of Babylon.

One of the few surviving sources of information that can be dated directly to Cyrus's time is the Cyrus cylinder, a document in the form of a clay cylinder inscribed in Akkadian cuneiform. It had been placed in the foundations of the Esagila (the temple of Marduk in Babylon) as a foundation deposit following the Persian conquest in 539 BC. It was discovered in 1879 and is kept today in the British Museum in London.[106]

The text of the cylinder denounces the deposed Babylonian king Nabonidus as impious and portrays Cyrus as pleasing to the chief god Marduk. It goes on to describe how Cyrus had improved the lives of the citizens of Babylonia, repatriated displaced peoples and restored temples and cult sanctuaries.[107] Although not mentioned in the text, the repatriation of the Jews from their "Babylonian captivity" has been interpreted as part of this policy.[108]

The United Nations has declared the relic to be an "ancient declaration of human rights" since 1971, approved by then Secretary General Mr. Sithu U Thant.[109] The British Museum describes the cylinder as "an instrument of ancient Mesopotamian propaganda" that "reflects a long tradition in Mesopotamia where, from as early as the third millennium BC, kings began their reigns with declarations of reforms."[59] The cylinder emphasizes Cyrus's continuity with previous Babylonian rulers, asserting his virtue as a traditional Babylonian king while denigrating his predecessor.[110]

In the 1970s the Shah of Iran adopted it as a political symbol, using it "as a central image in his own propaganda celebrating 2500 years of Iranian monarchy."[111] and asserting that it was "the first human rights charter in history".[112] This view has been disputed by some as "rather anachronistic" and tendentious,[113] as the modern concept of human rights would have been quite alien to Cyrus's contemporaries and is not mentioned by the cylinder.[114][115] The cylinder has, nonetheless, become seen as part of Iran's cultural identity.

wikipedia

 

  nazarat()
شاهنشاه کوردیش ،دیاکو/Deioces بنیانگذار دمکراسی nevisande: - ۱۳٩٢/٢/۱

Deioceskurdish empirer/iran

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
the first king of iran
 
Deioces
Born: 709 BC Died: 656 BC
Regnal titles
New title King of Medes
694 BC-665 BC
Succeeded by
Phraortes
 

Deioces,Diako, Deyaco, Diyako or Deiokes (Greek Δηιόκης) was the first king of the Medes according to Herodotus. In the late 8th century BC there was a Daiukku or Dayukku[1] who was a Mannaean provincial governor. Perhaps Herodotus uses the name in error.[2]

 Deioces in Herodotus

 

Herodotus (I: 96ff) says that Deioces (Deyaco), father of Phraortes, was "a man of great ability and ambitious for power" in a time when there was no government in the region; people in his own and other villages chose him to arbitrate disputes, and eventually selected him as their king: "Let us appoint one of our number to rule us so that we can get on with our work under orderly government, and not lose our homes altogether in the present chaos."[3] They built him first a palace and then a capital, Ecbatana (modern Hamadan). He established a strict protocol of seclusion and deference as well as a nationwide network of spies, administered justice, and ruled for fifty-three years; his son and successor was Phraortes, father of Cyaxares, who overthrew the Assyrian Empire and established the power of Media.

Rüdiger Schmitt writes:

Herodotus’ account seems to have been based on an oral tradition; from it scholars have deduced that Deioces was the founder of the Median royal dynasty and the first Median king to gain independence from Assyria. But it must be stressed that Herodotus’ report is a mixture of Greek and eastern legends and is not historically reliable. It has also been supposed ... that the Median king on whom Herodotus’ account is centered was actually Deioces’ son Phraortes, and it is therefore impossible to give the exact dates of Deioces’ reign, which probably spanned most of the first half of the 7th century B.C.E.[4]

 Daiukku in Assyrian inscriptions

A Daiukku is mentioned several times in inscriptions from the reign of Sargon II (late eighth century BC); he is named as a Mannean provincial governor (šaknu) ruling a district bordering Assyria. His son was held hostage by the Urartians, and he supported the Urartian king against the Mannean ruler Ullusunu, but Sargon captured Daiukku and exiled him and his family to Hamath in Syria. "Any connection between the governor mentioned by Sargon and the Median dynasty of later periods is thus only hypothetical; there is not a single authentic cuneiform source to confirm that Sargon’s Daiukku and Herodotus’ Deioces were the same person."[5]

 Cultural references

Ezra Pound refers to him near the beginning of Canto 74 (the first of the Pisan Cantos): "To build the city of Dioce whose terraces are the color of stars."

 References

  1. ^ Cuneiform Da-a-a-uk-ku; this, like the Greek form, presumably reflects an Iranian *Dahyu-ka-, based on dahyu- 'land': Rüdiger Schmitt, "Deioces," Encyclopaedia Iranica.
  2. ^ Webster's New Biographical Dictionary (Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster, 1988), p. 270: "Historically, probably a tribal chieftain confused by Herodotus with Phraortes."
  3. ^ Herodotus: The Histories, tr. Aubrey De Sélincourt (Penguin Books, 1954), p. 54.
  4. ^ Schmitt, "Deioces," Encyclopaedia Iranica.
  5. ^ Schmitt, "Deioces," Encyclopaedia Iranica.

 Further reading

wikipedia

  nazarat()
Ahmed Shawqi احمد شوقی nevisande: - ۱۳٩٢/٢/۱
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  This article is about the poet Ahmed Shawqi. For the Egyptian socialist Ahmed Shawki, see Ahmed Shawki (socialist).

 
/گویا برجسته ترین شاعر و ادیب مصر 
نکته:از کاربرد کلمه ی برجسته یا هر چه برداشتی خرافی و سلطه مدار نشود.چراکه این توضیح برای مردم جهان سومی که همواره دارای رفتارهای خرافی و ذهن باف اند ملزوم است.
Ahmed Shawqi
Ahmad shawqy.jpg
Portrait of Ahmed Shawqi.
Born December 25, 1868
Cairo, Khedivate of Egypt
Died December 13, 1932 (aged 64)
Cairo, Kingdom of Egypt
Occupation Playwright, poet
Period 19th–20th century

Ahmed Shawqi (1868–1932) (Arabic: أحمد شوقی‎, Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [ˈʔæħmæd ˈʃæwʔi]), nicknamed Amir al-Sho'araã (which literary means the prince of poets), was one of the greatest Arabic poets laureate,[1] an Egyptian poet and dramatist who pioneered the modern Egyptian literary movement, most notably introducing the genre of poetic epics to the Arabic literary tradition. On the paternal side he was of Circassian, Greek[2] and Kurdish descent,[3] and on the maternal side of Turkish and Greek descent.[4]

Life

Raised in a privileged setting, his family was prominent and well-connected with the court of the Khedive of Egypt. Upon graduating from high school, he attended law school, obtaining a degree in translation. Shawqi was then offered a job in the court of the Khedive Abbas II, which he immediately accepted.

After a year working in the court of the Khedive, Shawqi was sent to continue his studies in Law at the Universities of Montpellier and Paris for three years. While in France, he was heavily influenced by the works of French playwrights, most notably Molière and Racine. He returned to Egypt in 1894, and remained a prominent member of Arab literary culture until the British forced him into exile in southern Spain, Andalusia, in 1914. Shawqi remained there until 1920, when he returned to Egypt. In 1927 he was crowned by his peers Amir al-Sho’araa’ (literally, "the Prince of Poets") in recognition of his considerable contributions to the literary field.

He used to live in ‘Karmet Ibn Hani’ or Ibn Hani’s Vineyard at Al-Matariyyah area near the palace of the Khedive Abbas II at Saray El-Qobba until he was exiled. After returning to Egypt he built a new house at Giza which he named the new Karmet Ibn Hani.[5] He met Mohammed Abdel Wahab, and introduced him for the first time to art, making him his protégé as he gave him a suite in his house. The house later on became Ahmed Shawki Museum and Mohammed Abdel Wahab became one of the most famous Egyptian composers.

 Legacy

Monument to Shawqi in Villa  / رم  /Borghese, Rome

Shawqi’s work can be categorized into three main periods during his career. The first coincides with the period during which he occupied a position at the court of the Khedive, consisting of eulogies to the Khedive: praising him or supporting his policy. The second comprised the period of his exile in Spain. During this period, his feeling of nostalgia and sense of alienation directed his poetic talent to patriotic poems on Egypt as well as the Arab world and panarabism. The third stage occurred after his return from exile, during that period he became preoccupied with the glorious history of Ancient Egypt and Islam. This was the period during which he wrote his religious poems, in praise of the Prophet Muhammad. The maturation of his poetic style was also reflected in his plays, the most notable of which were published during this period.

 Plays

Ahmed Shawki

Shawqi was the first in modern Arabic literature to write poetic plays. He wrote five tragedies:

  • Majnun Laila (literally "The Mad about Layla"), his first play.
  • The Death of Cleopatra
  • 'Antara
  • Ali bek el-Kabeer
  • Qambeez (Cambyses II), 1931

and two comedies:

  • Es-Set Huda (Madam Huda)
  • El-Bakhila (the Miser)

in addition to a prose play: the Princess of Andalusia.

 Poetry

  • Esh-Shawqiyyat, his selected works, in four volumes, including Nahj al-Burda, a tribute to the Prophet Muhammad
  • The States of Arabs and the Great Men of Islam, A long poem about the History of Islam.

 Prose

He also wrote chapters of prose, collected under the title: the Markets of Gold. Great book

 Novels

Shawqi wrote several novels. A few survived among which:

  • The Last Pharaoh, translated by Poet Ahmed Seddik

 Memory

  • His home was turned into Ahmed Shawki Museum
  • The street of his home in Giza was named after him.
  • Many statues were erected to honor him inside & outside Egypt.
  • Shawqi is celebrated in several parts of the world and in Egypt there is a monthly lecture series about his poetry at the Sawy Culture wheel.
  • A postage stamp was issued in the 1990s in Egypt to honor his memory.
  • Google made a doodle for him on selected Arabic-speaking countries on October 16, 2010 in honor of his memory[citation needed][6]
  • Many books were written about his life.[7]

Notes

  1. ^ Egypt. "Poet Laurate". Tripadvisor.com. Retrieved 2012-12-20. 
  2. ^ "via Al-Ahram News Paper". Ahram.org.eg. Retrieved 2012-12-20. 
  3. ^ Goldschmidt, Arthur (2000). Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 194. ISBN 1555872298, 9781555872298 Check |isbn= value (help).  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ Brugman, J. (1984). An introduction to the history of modern Arabic literature in Egypt. BRILL. pp. 35–36. ISBN 9004071725. 
  5. ^ My Father Shawky by Hussin Ahmed Shawky 2nd edition (in arabic) General authority of culture palaces 2006 Cairo
  6. ^ "Google & Ahmed Shawki". Retrieved 2012-12-20. 
  7. ^ "Biblotica Alexandrina List of Books about Ahmed Shawki (in Arabic)" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-12-20. 

 References

  • Glimpses of Ahmed Shawqi’s Life and Works, Egypt Magazine, Issue No. 19-Fall 1999.

 External links

Monument to Shawqi in Villa Borghese, Rome

 

 

  nazarat()
Khani nevisande: - ۱۳٩٢/٢/۱
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
شاعر و ادیب سترگ/خالق اثر قطور و تاریخی مم و زین
 

 

Khani

Born 1650
Hakkari, Hakkâri Province
Died 1707
(Dogubeyazit), Ağrı
Occupation Writer, Poet, Philosopher
Nationality Kurdish
Literary movement Renaissance


Ahmad Khani, Ahmad-i Khani or Ehmede Xani (Kurdish: Ehmedê Xanî , 1650–1707) was an Ottoman Kurdish writer, poet, Sunni Muslim cleric, and philosopher. He was born amongst the Khani's tribe in Hakkari province in present-day Turkey. He moved to Bayezid in Ritkan province and settled there. Later he started with teaching Kurdish (Kurmanji) at basic level. Khani was fluent in Kurdish, Arabic and Persian. He wrote his Arabic-Kurdish dictionary "Nûbihara Biçûkan" (The Spring of Children) in 1683 to help children with their learning process.

His most important work is the Kurdish classic love story "Mem and Zin"(Mem û Zîn) (1692).[1]

His other work include a book called Eqîdeya Îmanê (The Path of Faith), which is part poem and part prose. The book explains the five pillars of Islamic faith. It was published in 2000 in Sweden.

 Works

 Books

  1. Mem û Zîn (Mem and Zin), see [1] for its French translation, see [2] for its English translation,
  2. Eqîdeya Îmanê (The Path of Faith)
  3. Nûbihara Biçûkan (The Spring of Children)'
Mem and Zin
Gora Mem û Zîn.JPG
Grave of Mem û Zîn in Cizre, 2008.
Author(s) Ahmad Khani
Language Kurdish language
Genre(s) Historical, Romance, Tragedy
Publication date 1692
Media type Print (Hardback & Paperback) & Audio book

Mam and Zin (Kurdish: Mem û Zîn) is a Kurdish classic love story written down 1692 and is considered to be the épopée of Kurdish literature. It is the most important work of Kurdish writer and poet Ahmad Khani (1651-1707). Mam and Zin is based on a true story.

For Kurds, Mam and Zin are symbols of the Kurdish people and Kurdistan, which are separated and cannot come together.[citation needed]

The Mem-u Zin Mausoleum in Cizre province has become a tourist attraction.

The movie Mem û Zîn was produced in 1991 in Turkey. It was not allowed to play the story in the Kurdish language[citation needed] so it was first produced in Turkish. It was later translated into Kurdish.

 Synopsis

Mam, of the "Alan" clan, and Zin, of the "Botan" clan, are two star-crossed lovers. Their union is blocked by a person named Bakr of the Bakran clan. Mam eventually dies during a complicated conspiracy by Bakr. When Zin receives the news, she also dies while mourning the death of Mam at his grave. The immense grief leads to her death and she is buried next to Mam. The news of the death of Mam and Zin, spreads quickly among the people of Jazira Botan. Then Bakr's role in the tragedy is revealed, and he takes sanctuary between the two graves. He is eventually captured and slain by the people of Jazira. A thorn bush soon grows out of Bakr’s blood, sending its roots of malice deep into the earth between the lovers’ graves, separating the two even after their death. In 2002, the Kurdistan TV satellite channel produced a dramatised series of Mam and Zin, which was recognised as one of the best-directed dramas in Kurdistan.[citation needed]

Current edition

  • Paris : Weşanên Enstîtuya Kurdî ya Parîsê, 1989 (LCCN 98956769)

 External links -  film-

wikipedia

 

  nazarat()
Ziryab nevisande: - ۱۳٩٢/٢/۱

Ziryab

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
Maler der Geschichte von Bayâd und Riyâd 002.jpg

Abu l-Hasan ‘Ali Ibn Nafi‘ (789-857),[1][2] (kurdish:zryab) was a polymath of the medieval Islamic period: a poet, musician, singer, chemist, cosmetologist, strategist, astronomer, botanist and geographer. His nickname Ziryab means black bird in Arabic, gold-hunter or gold-digger in Persian and he is also known as Pájaro Negro (blackbird) in Spanish.[1] He was active at the Umayyad court of Córdoba in Islamic Iberia. He first achieved notoriety at the Abbasid court in Baghdad, Iraq, his birthplace, as a performer and student of the great Iranic musician and composer, Ishaq al-Mawsili.

Ziryab was a gifted pupil of Ishaq al-Mawsili (d. 850). He left Baghdad during the reign of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun (d. 833) and moved to Córdoba in southern Iberian Peninsula, where he was accepted as court musician in the court of Abd al-Rahman II of the Umayyad Dynasty (822-52).

 Ethnic origin

Ziryab's career flourished in Al-Andalus, although his origins remain controversial. He is variously described as  Kurdish

 Historical context/early life

As the Islamic armies conquered more and more territories, their musical culture spread with them, as far as western China in the east and Iberia in the west. After their 8th century conquest of nearly all of Hispania, which they renamed Al-Andalus, the Muslims were a small minority for quite some time, greatly outnumbered by the majority Christians and a smaller community of Jews, who had their own styles of music. With their arrival, the Muslims and Arabs introduced new styles of music, and the main cities of Iberia soon became well known centers for music within the Islamic world.[28] During the 8th and 9th centuries, many musicians and artists from across the Islamic world flocked to Iberia. While many were talented, Ziryab surpassed them all.[29]

There are conflicting tales of the early years of Ziryab. He was born around 789 CE. According to the earliest accounts we have of him, he was African or a racially mixed African-Arab; in this period, the Muslims brought African slaves with them to the lands they had conquered, and many of these slaves were known for their musical skills. Ziryab was most likely born in Baghdad, and was trained in the art of music from a young age. During that time, Baghdad was an important center of music in the Muslim world. The sources all agree that the accomplished and talented musician Ishaq al-Mawsili was Ziryab’s teacher. There is some debate about how he arrived in al-Andalus, but he may have offended his patron or some powerful figure with his musical talent.[30]

One account recorded by al-Maqqari says that Ziryab inspired the jealousy of his mentor by giving an impressive performance for the caliph Harun al-Rashid (d. 809), with the result that al-Mawsili told him to leave the city.[28][29] Earlier, more reliable sources indicate that he outlived both Harun and his son al-Amin and left after al-Amin's death in 813.[31]

Ziryab left Baghdad During the reign of al-Ma'mun some time after the year 813. He then traveled first to (Syria), then to Ifriqiya (Tunisia), where he lived at the Aghlabid court of Ziyadat Allah (ruled 816-837). Ziryab fell out with Ziyadat Allah but was invited to Al-Andalus by the Umayyad prince, Al-Hakam I (ruled 796-822). He found on arrival in 822 that the prince had died, but the prince's son, Abd ar-Rahman II, renewed his father's invitation.[31] Ziryab settled in Córdoba he was honored a monthly salary of 200 Gold Dinars, he soon became even more celebrated as the court's aficionado of food, fashion, singing and music. He introduced standards of excellence in all these fields as well as setting new norms for elegant and noble manners. Ziryab became such a prominent cultural figure, and was given a huge salary from Abd al Rahman II.[29] He was an intimate companion of the prince and established a school of music that trained singers and musicians which influenced musical performance for at least two generations after him.

According to Historians: Ziryab was well known for his black color and beautiful singing voice, which inspired his nickname, said to mean something like "Blackbird".[31] Al-Maqqari further states in his Nafh al-Tib (Fragrant Breeze): “There never was, either before or after him (Ziryab), a man of his profession who was more generally beloved and admired”.

 Music

Ziryab is said to have improved the Oud (or Laúd) by adding a fifth pair of strings, and using an eagle's beak or quill instead of a wooden pick. Ziryab also dyed the four strings a color to symbolize the Aristotelian humors, and the fifth string to represent the soul.[28] He is said to have created a unique and influential style of musical performance, and written songs that were performed in Iberia for generations. He was a great influence on Spanish music, and is considered the founder of the Andalusian music traditions of North Africa.

Ziryab’s Baghdadi musical style became very popular in the court of Abd al-Rahman II.[30] Ziryab also became the example of how a courtier, a person who attended aristocratic courts, should act. According to Ibn Hayyan, in common with erudite men of his time he was well versed in many areas of classical study such as astronomy, history, and geography.

According to al-Tifashi, Ziryab appears to have popularized an early song-sequence, which may have been a precursor to the nawba (originally simply a performer's "turn" to perform for the prince), or Nuba, which is known today as the classical Arabic music of North Africa, though the connections are tenuous at best.

Abd al-Rahman II was a great patron of the arts and Ziryab was given a great deal of freedom. He established one of the first schools of music in Córdoba. This school incorporated both male and female students, especially slave women, who were very popular amongst the aristocracy of the time.[31] According to Ibn Hayyan, Ziryab developed various tests for them. If a student didn't have a large vocal capacity, for instance, he would put pieces of wood in their jaw to force them to hold their mouth open. Or he would tie a sash tightly around the waist in order to make them breathe in a particular way, and he would test incoming students by having them sing as loudly and as long a note as they possibly could to see whether they had lung capacity.

 Family

According to the main source, Ibn Hayyan, Ziryab had eight sons and two daughters. Five of the sons and both daughters became musicians of some prominence.[29] These children kept their father's music school alive, but the female slave singers he trained also were regarded as reliable sources for his repertoire in the following generation.[31]

 Fashion and hygiene

Ziryab started a vogue by changing clothes according to the weather and season.[29] He suggested different clothing for mornings, afternoons and evenings. Henri Terrasse, a French historian of North Africa, commented that legend attributes winter and summer clothing styles and "the luxurious dress of the Orient" found in Morocco today to Ziryab, but argues that "Without a doubt, a lone man could not achieve this transformation. It is rather a development which shook the Muslim world in general..."[32]

He created a new type of deodorant to get rid of bad odors[29] and also promoted morning and evening baths and emphasized the maintenance of personal hygiene. Ziryab is thought to have invented an early toothpaste, which he popularized throughout Islamic Iberia.[33] The exact ingredients of this toothpaste are not currently known,[34] but it was reported to have been both "functional and pleasant to taste.".[33]

According to Al-Maqqari before the arrival of Ziryab, all the people of al-Andalus, in the Cordoban court, wore their long hair parted in the middle and hung down loose down to the shoulders, men and women; Ziryab had his hair cut with bangs down to his eyebrows and straight across his forehead, "new short hairstyles leaving the neck, ears and eyebrows free,".[28] He popularized shaving among men and set new haircut trends. Royalty used to wash their hair with rose water, but Ziryab introduced the use of salt and fragrant oils to improve the hair’s condition.[34]

Ziryab is alleged by some[34] to have opened beauty parlors for women of the Cordoban elite. However, this is not supported by the early sources.

 Cuisine

He was an arbiter of culinary fashion and taste, who also "revolutionized the local cuisine" by introducing new fruit and vegetables such as asparagus, and by introducing the three-course meal served on leathern tablecloths, insisting that meals should be served in three separate courses consisting of soup, the main course, and dessert. He also introduced the use of crystal as a container for drinks, which was more effective than metal goblets.[28] Prior to his time, food was served plainly on platters on bare tables, as was the case with the Romans.

 Legacy

Ziryab revolutionized the court at Córdoba and made it the stylistic capital of its time. Whether introducing new clothes, styles, foods, hygiene products, or music Ziryab changed al-Andalusian culture forever. The musical contributions of Ziryab alone are staggering, laying the early groundwork for classic Spanish music. Ziryab transcended music and style and became a revolutionary cultural figure in 8th and 9th century Iberia.

wikipedia

  nazarat()
Baba Tahir/بابا طاهر همدانی کوردیش nevisande: - ۱۳٩٢/٢/۱

Baba Tahir (ca. 1000-1060 AD)

زمینه ی شعری:دوبیتی-غزل-قصیده

 

Baba Tahir (ca. 1000-1060 AD) of Hamadan (Hemedan, Ekbatan in Median era) is one of the very first poets in the East to write rubaiyats. Little is known of the circumstances of Baba Tahir's birth and death. Baba Tahir’s rusticity and mastery of both Kurdish (Lekí dialect), Persian (and Arabic) have rendered his works unusually dear to the common people of both nations. His particular poetic meter is perhaps a legacy of the pre-Islamic poetic tradition of southeastern and central Kurdistan, or the celebrated "Pehlewíyat/Fehlewíyat," or more specific the "Ewranet" style of balladry. Many Yarisan (Yaristan) religious works and Jilwa, the holy hymns of the Yezidi prophet Shaykh Adi, are also in this Pehlewíyat style of verse. Baba Tahir himself has now ascended to a high station in the indigenous Kurdish religion of Yarisanism as one of the avatars of the Universal Spirit.

Baba Tahir Oryan's mysticism, philosophy, and sentiments are captured in quatrains of simple and uniform metre.He was considered by his contemporaries as one of the most eminent, erudite mystics and sentimentalists of his time.

Baba Tahir mausoleum (photo below) situated near the northern entrance of the city of Hamadan. It was reconstructed in 1970. Baba Tahir, living in the first half of the 11th centuray A.D. was one of the great gnostics of Yaristan to which the gnostics dynesty of Kurdistan such as Eyn-ol-Quzat Hemedaní, also a gnostic, belonged. Songs and maxims of Baba Tahir was originally read in Pehlewí (Pahlawi), kurdish taken their present form in the course of time. Baba Tahir's hand written manuscript still remained and preserved in the library of Konya in Turkey. It is obvious since the manuscripts are written in Persian (modified Arabic) alphabet, many rewritten attempts of Baba Tahir's by none expertise of Kurdish Lekí dialect resulted in the mispronunciations of verses. Here is the translation of one of Baba Tahir's

Tomb of Baba Tahir
 
Poetry

Baba Tahir poems are recited to the present day all over Iran accompanied with setar (in Persian: Seh Tar), three stringed viol or lute. They say Pahlaviat to these kinds of poems and they are very ancient. Baba Tahir songs were originally read in Pahlavi (Middle Persian),[3] as well as Luri and Hamadani dialects, taking their present form in the course of time. The quatrains of Baba Tahir have a more amorous and mystical connotation rather than philosophical. Baba Tahir's poems are of the do-bayti style, a form of Persian quatrains, which some scholars regard as having affinities with Middle Persian verses,[2] Classical Persian Music is based on Persian literature and Baba Tahir's poems are the weight that carries a major portion of this music. Baba Tahir's poetry is the basis for Dastgahe Shoor and in particular Gooshe of Dashtestani, Choopani and Deylaman.[citation needed]

Writing

Attributed to him is a work by the name Kalemat-e qesaar, a collection of nearly 400 aphorisms in Arabic, which has been the subject of commentaries, one allegedly by Ayn-al-Qozμat Hamadani.[4] An example of such a saying is one where Baba Tahir ties knowledge with gnosis: Knowledge is the guide to gnosis, and when gnosis has come the vision of knowledge lapses and there remain only the movements of knowledge to gnosis”; “knowledge is the crown of the gnostic, and gnosis is the crown of knowledge”; whoever witnesses what is decreed by God remains motionless and powerless.His tomb is located near the northern entrance of the city of Hamadan in Western Iran, in a park, surrounded by flowers and winding paths. The structure consists of twelve external pillars surrounding a central tower. It was reconstructed in 1970.

 

 Sample Poetry

Original in Persian alphabet:

مگر شیر و پلنگی ای دل ای دل

به مو دایم بجنگی ای دل ای دل

اگر دستم فتی خونت وریژم

بوینم تا چه رنگی ای دل ای دل

Translation:

Art thou a lion or leapoard, O Heart, O Heart,

That thou warres ever with me, O Heart, O Heart?

Fall thou into my hands; I'll spill thy blood,

To see what colour it is, O Heart, O Heart!

Original Pahlavi:

خداوندا که بوشم با که بوشم

مژه پر اشک خونین تا که بوشم

همم کز در برانن سو ته آیم

تو کم از در برانی واکه بوشم

Translation:

Lord! who am I, and of what company?

How long shall tears of blood thus blind mine eyes?

When other refuge fails I'll turn to Thee,

And if Thou failest me, whither shall I go?

Original Pahlavi:

مو آن بحرم که در ظرف آمدستم

مو آن نقطه که در حرف آمدستم

بهر الفی الف قدی بر آیه

الف قدم که در الف آمدستم

Translation:

I am that sea and have come into a bowl;

I am that dot and have come into a letter;

in every thousand one straight-as-an-alef (alef-qadd) appears;

I am that straight one, for I came in a thousand

Original Pahlavi:

دلم از درد ته دائم غمینه

به بالین خشتم و بستر زمینه

همین جرمم که مو ته دوست دیرم

ز هر کت دوست دیره حال آینه؟

Translation:

Grieving for thee my heart is ever sad,

A brick my pillow, and my couch the earth:

My only sin is loving thee too well:

Surely not all thy lovers suffer so?

Original Pahlavi:

هزارت دل بغارت برده ویشه

هزارانت جگر خون کرده ویشه

هزاران داغ ویش از ویشم اشمر

هنی نشمرده از اشمرده ویشه

Translation:

More than a thousand hearts has thou laid waste,

More than a thousand suffer grief for thee,

More than a thousand wounds of thine I've counted,

Yet the uncounted still are more than these.

Original Pahlavi:

سیه بختم که بختم سرنگون بی

توه روژم که روژم واژگون بی

شدم خار و خس کوه محبت

ز دست دل که یارب غرق خون بی

Translation:

Black is my lot, my fortune's overtuned,

Ruined are my fortunes, for my luck is brought low;

A thorn, a thistle I, on the Mountain of Love,

For my heart's sake. Drown it in blood, O Lord!

Original Pahlavi:

نگارینا دل و جونم ته دیری

همه پیدا و پنهونم ته دیری

ندونم مو که این درد از که دیرم

همی ذونم که در مونم ته دیری

Translation:

My Beautiful! thou hast my heart and soul,

Thou hast mine inner and mine outer self;

I know not why I am so very sad,

I only know that thou hold'st the remedy.

Original Pahlavi:

دلی نازک بسان شیشه ام بی

اگر آهی کشم اندیشه ام بی

سرشکم گر بوه خونین عجب نیست

مو آن دارم که در خون ریشه ام بی

Translation:

My heart is dainty as a drinking cup,

I fear for it whene'er I have a sigh;

It is not strange my tears are as blood,

I am a tree whose roots set in blood.

Original Pahlavi:

مسلسل زلف بر رو ریته دیری

گل و سنبل بهم آویته دیری

پریشان چون کری اون تار زلفون

به هر تاری دوی آویته دیری

Translation:

Thy tangled Curls are scattered o'er thy face,

Mingling the Roses with the Hyacinths;

But part asunder those entangled strand

On ever hair thou'lt find there hangs a heart. (Translation by: Edward Heron-Allen)

Original Pahlavi:

دلا راه تو پر خار و خسک بی

گذرگاه تو بر اوج فلک بی

گر از دستت بر آیو پوست از تن

بیفکن تا که بارت کمترک بی

Translation:

Briar and thorn beset thy way, o Heart

Beyond the Dome of Heaven is thy road;

If thou art able, then thy very skin

Cast off from thee, and lighten thus thy load

Original Pahlavi:

ز دست دیده و دل هر دو فریاد

که هرچه دیده وینه دل کنه یاد

بسازم خنجری نیشش ز پولاد

زنم بردیده تا دل گرده آزاد

Translation:

Beneath the tyranny of eyes and heart I cry,

For, all the eyes see, the heart stores up:

I'll fashin me a pointed sword of steel,

Put out mine eyes, and so set free my heart

Original Pahlavi:

دلت ای سنگدل بر ما نسوجه

عجب نبود اگر خارا نسوجه

بسوجم تا بسوجونم دلت را

در آتش چوب تر تنها نسوجه

Translation:

O heart of Stone, Thou burnest not for me,

That stone burns not, is not, indeed, so strange

But I will burn till I inflame thy heart.

For fresh-cut logs are difficult to burn alone.

Original Pahlavi:

بی ته اشکم ز مژگان تر آیو

بی ته نخل امیدم بی بر آیو

بی ته در کنج تنها شو و روز

نشینم که تا عمرم بر سر آیو

Translation:

When thou’rt away, mine eyes o’erflow with tears,

Barren the Tree of Hope when thou’rt away:

Without thee, night and day, in a solitary corner,

I sit, till life itself come to an end.

Original Pahlavi:

به گلشن بی تو گل هرگز مرویا

وگر رویا کسش هرگز مبویا

بی شادی بی تو هرکس لو گشایه

لوش از خون دل هرگز مشویا

Translation:

Without-Thee in the Garden, Lord, may no rose bloom,

Or, blooming, may none taste its sweet perfume,

So, should my heart expand when Thou art not nigh,

T were vain! my heart's grief nought could turn to joy

Original Pahlavi:

چو مو یک سو ته دل پروانه ای نه

جهان را همچو مو دیوانه ای نه

همه مارون و مورون لانه دیرن

من بیچاره را ویرانه-ای نه

Translation:

What blundering Moth in all the World like me?

What madman like me in the Universe?

The very Serpents and the Ants have nests,

But I—poor wretch - no ruin shelters me.

wikipedia

  nazarat()
ترجمه ی بیوگرافی یاسمی/Siamak Yasami nevisande: - ۱۳٩٢/٢/۱

 Biography

  

director,producer,scenarist

کارگردان نامبر وان سینما/top director-number one/iranخالق گنج قارون و دالاهو و لیلی و مجنون و...

Siamak Yasemi, Rashid Yasemi’s son and little brother of Shapour Yasemi, was born from Kermanshah Kurdish family. His father is a famous researcher, translator and author and has written a book named “Kurd and Its Historical and Ethnical Continuity”. He has made movies such as “Ganje Gharoon” that is doubtless one of the masterpieces of Iran folklore cinema and giving meaning to cinema of Iran and “Dalahoo” that has made it in his hometown or “Lili and Majnoon” movie that has been made based on Nezami Ganjavi’s work, Kurdish poet and beginner of Iran poem, and other prominent works. The most important actors or actresses of Iran have often been famous with playing role in his movies and scenarios, including: Mohammad Ali Fardin-Froozan- Soraya Bheshti and others.  

 

تصاویر:برداشت شده از فیلم مرد هزار لبخند

mohammad ali fardin:top actor & yasami

After finishing his education in law field in Toloz University (French), in 1328 he was employed in foreign ministry and from that time he dealt to translating foreign stories and their printing in press.  Some of his translations have been printed in Ferdosi and Khosheh magazines between 1328 until 1330. In these years, his brother, Shapour, was manager of producing studio of “Pars Film” and Ali Kasmaie wrote stories and dialogs of Koushan studio movies. After his father’s death, Siamak was immediately invited to Dr Koushan’s office by mediating Shapour and with writing movie story of “Masti Eshgh” began his cooperation with “Pars Film”. After cooperating with Koushan as councilor of director in “Dozde Eshgh” movie and writing movie story of “Afsoongar”, was assign him directing “Shabhaee Tehran” (T          ehran Nights).  When directing his first movies, he didn’t have any knowledge about directing; only he had seen Koushan and Kasmaie behind camera. Yasemi made six movies for Koushan until 1338: “Rahzan” (1333), “Yusof and Zolaykha” (1335), “Zaleme Bala” (1336), “Bizhan and Manijeh” (1337), “Telesmeh Shekasteh” (1337) and “Cheshmeh Ab Hayat” (1338) that was the last movie that Yasemi directed for “Pars Film”. From that year, he established “Pourya Film” and undertook producing his movies himself. Yasemi with “Aghaye Gharne Bistom” (Mr. of twentieth century) (1343) especially “Ganje Gharoon” (1345) rescued Iran cinema from bankruptcy, although movies that were made in “Maktabe Ganje Gharoon” after that because of repetitive subjects faced Iran cinema with crisis. Yasemi was active in his profession with making a movie named “Hayula” until 1355. In early 1350 decade, he didn’t have any mode and making movie didn’t motivate him. His movies failed and even famous actor such as Mohammad Ali Fardin in movie of “Marde Hezar Labkhand” (A Man with Thousand Smile) (1350) couldn’t save him and his movie from failing. Yasemi’s movies in 1330 decade are more acceptable than his movies in second mid of 1340 decade and first mid of 1350 decade. He has directed and written his scenario in movies such as “Telesm Shekasteh” (1337), “Sahel Entezar” (1342, “Lezate Gonah” (1343) and “Aghaye Gharne Bistom” (1343) better than “Nabghe Haft Mahe” (1343), “Shamsi Pahlawoon” (1345), “Toofan Novh” (1346), “Dalahoo” (1346), “Bar Asman Nweshteh” (written on sky) (1347), “Ghooze Baleghooz” (1349), “Lili and Majnoon” (1349), “Abshare Tala” (gold waterfall) (1351), “Parizad” (1352), “Heart Wants Itself” (1353), “Pretty Pari” (1353), and “Rande Shode” (1354). Siamak Yasemi dead in cancer in Tehran when he was 69 years old. He was poet. His children have published his poems in 1380.  

مشهورترین فیلم تاریخ سینمای قدیم ایران

از مهم ترین فیلمهای تاریخ سینمای ایران که فیلمهای متعدد و سناریوهای مختلف دیگر کپی عینی آن فیلم را ارائه دادند.فیلمی که بارها از دیدن آن لذت میبریم.

 

 

======

اصطلاح گنج قارونی

 

Ganje Gharoon made by Siamak Yasemi is one of the most famous movies of Iran that has been imitated by many people. Its content was roots of Iran culture and folklore such as honesty and honor and heroism that Kurdish director, Yasemi (number one director of Iran cinema that with his movies and scenarios created changes in Iran cinema) made it. He and Masoud Kimiaee along others were two basic element of Iran cinema.

 

 filmography

  1. کارگردان  : (۳۳)مورد
    (۱۳۵۰)(۱۳۴۰)(۱۳۳۰)

    ۱ -  هیولا (۱۳۵۵)
    ۲ -  رانده شده (۱۳۵۴)
    ۳ -  پری خوشگله (۱۳۵۳)
    ۴ -  عروس پابرهنه (۱۳۵۳)
    ۵ -  پریزاد (۱۳۵۲)
    ۶ -  دل خودش می خواد (۱۳۵۲)
    ۷ -  آبشار طلا (۱۳۵۱)
    ۸ -  طغرل (۱۳۵۱)
    ۹ -  مرد هزار لبخند (۱۳۵۰)
    ۱۰ -  لیلی و مجنون (۱۳۴۹)
    ۱۱ -  بر آسمان نوشته (۱۳۴۷)
    ۱۲ -  تنگه اژدها (۱۳۴۷)
    ۱۳ -  دالاهو (۱۳۴۶)
    ۱۴ -  طوفان نوح (۱۳۴۶)
    ۱۵ -  شمسی پهلوان (۱۳۴۵)
    ۱۶ -  قهرمان قهرمانان (۱۳۴۴)
    ۱۷ -  گنج قارون (۱۳۴۴)
    ۱۸ -  آقای قرن بیستم (۱۳۴۳)
    ۱۹ -  لذت گناه (۱۳۴۳)
    ۲۰ -  ساحل انتظار (۱۳۴۲)
    ۲۱ -  نابغه هفت ماهه (۱۳۴۲)
    ۲۲ -  وحشت (۱۳۴۲)
    ۲۳ -  ور پریده (۱۳۴۱)
    ۲۴ -  ورپریده (۱۳۴۱)
    ۲۵ -  آس و پاس (۱۳۴۰)
    ۲۶ -  عمو نوروز (۱۳۴۰)
    ۲۷ -  اول هیکل (۱۳۳۹)
    ۲۸ -  چشمه آب حیات (۱۳۳۸)
    ۲۹ -  طلسم شکسته (۱۳۳۷)
    ۳۰ -  ظالم بلا (۱۳۳۶)
    ۳۱ -  یوسف و زلیخا (۱۳۳۵)
    ۳۲ -  راهزن (۱۳۳۴)
    ۳۳ -  شب های تهران (۱۳۳۲)


 فیلم شناسی :   کارگردان   نویسنده   بازیگر   تهیه کننده  


  1. نویسنده  : (۲۹)مورد
    (۱۳۵۰)(۱۳۴۰)(۱۳۳۰)

    ۱ -  هیولا (۱۳۵۵)
    ۲ -  رانده شده (۱۳۵۴)
    ۳ -  پری خوشگله (۱۳۵۳)
    ۴ -  عروس پابرهنه (۱۳۵۳)
    ۵ -  پریزاد (۱۳۵۲)
    ۶ -  دل خودش می خواد (۱۳۵۲)
    ۷ -  آبشار طلا (۱۳۵۱)
    ۸ -  طغرل (۱۳۵۱)
    ۹ -  قوز بالا قوز (۱۳۴۹)
    ۱۰ -  بر آسمان نوشته (۱۳۴۷)
    ۱۱ -  تنگه اژدها (۱۳۴۷)
    ۱۲ -  شمسی پهلوان (۱۳۴۵)
    ۱۳ -  قهرمان قهرمانان (۱۳۴۴)
    ۱۴ -  گنج قارون (۱۳۴۴)
    ۱۵ -  آقای قرن بیستم (۱۳۴۳)
    ۱۶ -  لذت گناه (۱۳۴۳)
    ۱۷ -  ساحل انتظار (۱۳۴۲)
    ۱۸ -  نابغه هفت ماهه (۱۳۴۲)
    ۱۹ -  وحشت (۱۳۴۲)
    ۲۰ -  ور پریده (۱۳۴۱)
    ۲۱ -  ورپریده (۱۳۴۱)
    ۲۲ -  آس و پاس (۱۳۴۰)
    ۲۳ -  عمو نوروز (۱۳۴۰)
    ۲۴ -  اول هیکل (۱۳۳۹)
    ۲۵ -  بیژن و منیژه (۱۳۳۷)
    ۲۶ -  یوسف و زلیخا (۱۳۳۵)
    ۲۷ -  راهزن (۱۳۳۴)
    ۲۸ -  افسونگر (۱۳۳۲)
    ۲۹ -  مستی عشق (۱۳۳۰)


 فیلم شناسی :   کارگردان   نویسنده   بازیگر   تهیه کننده  


  1. بازیگر  : (۲)مورد
    (۱۳۴۰)(۱۳۳۰)

    ۱ -  عمو نوروز (۱۳۴۰)
    ۲ -  راهزن (۱۳۳۴)


 فیلم شناسی :   کارگردان   نویسنده   بازیگر   تهیه کننده  


  1. تهیه کننده  : (۱۸)مورد
    (۱۳۵۰)(۱۳۴۰)(۱۳۳۰)

    ۱ -  آبشار طلا (۱۳۵۱)
    ۲ -  مرد هزار لبخند (۱۳۵۰)
    ۳ -  قوز بالا قوز (۱۳۴۹)
    ۴ -  لیلی و مجنون (۱۳۴۹)
    ۵ -  بر آسمان نوشته (۱۳۴۷)
    ۶ -  تنگه اژدها (۱۳۴۷)
    ۷ -  دالاهو (۱۳۴۶)
    ۸ -  طوفان نوح (۱۳۴۶)
    ۹ -  شمسی پهلوان (۱۳۴۵)
    ۱۰ -  قهرمان قهرمانان (۱۳۴۴)
    ۱۱ -  گنج قارون (۱۳۴۴)
    ۱۲ -  آقای قرن بیستم (۱۳۴۳)
    ۱۳ -  لذت گناه (۱۳۴۳)
    ۱۴ -  ور پریده (۱۳۴۱)
    ۱۵ -  ورپریده (۱۳۴۱)
    ۱۶ -  آس و پاس (۱۳۴۰)
    ۱۷ -  عمو نوروز (۱۳۴۰)
    ۱۸ -  اول هیکل (۱۳۳۹)

منبع:این متن توسط موسسه های زبان و ترجمه برگردان شده.همچنین فیلموگرافی از سوره که تایپ دوباره خاهند شد.

//////////////////////

و کیمیایی/persian top director/iran

 

  nazarat()
ترجمه ی بیوگرافی Moluk Zarabi nevisande: - ۱۳٩٢/٢/۱

Biography

 زنده یاد ملوک ضرابی

Moluk Zarabi (1289, 1910 – 1378, 1999). She was one of the first female singers of Iran . Her origin family was Kurd from Danbali race that had migrated from Kurdish of Turkey to Iran. She began her art activities from age of 13. She learnt singing from Eghbal Azar and were recorded some songs from her. Husain Taherzadeh (two years) and Hajikhan Zarbgir were other teachers of her. With establishing radio, she went there and participated in some programs. Zarabi cooperated in scenarios of barbed society with wardship of Esmaeil Mehrtash and was skillful in singing chanson or opus and pulsatile songs. Many works have remained  from her. She was favorite singer of Iran king.  Moluk Zarabi dead in private apartment in Tehran in 1378.

albums ترجمه نشده

  •  rana
  •  sokhani ba del
  • kisty?
  • behtarinhaye 1
  •  behtarinhaye 2

تصنیفهایی از ملوک ضرابی (۱) :

 

 (۱)

تصنیف عشق بتان ( در مایه شوشتری ): دانلود کنید

من اگر بت می پرستم ، چه کنم دلداده هستم ، که من از عشق بتان

بخدا طاقت زدستت ، زند آتش بجان

تو مگر وحشی غزالی ، که چنین خوش خط و خالی ، تو مگر باغ گلی

تو مگر روز وصالی ، مگر کام دلی

مرغ دل دیوانه شد ، افسانه شد درکویت

خوش دلم را خانه شد ، کاشانه شد گیسویت

کار من آشفته شد ، آشفته تر از مویت

ناله ها دل داده شب ، شب تا سحر بی رویت

( ای پری پیکر ، شوخ و افسونگر

بی گنه کشتی مرا روزی ای دلبر

بی سبب هشتی مرا با دو چشم تر

دلربا بودی ، با وفا بودی

با رقیبان کی چنین آشنا بودی

روزی ای نامهربان مال ما بودی ) 2

 

 

(۲)

تصنیف دخترک ( در مایه شوشتری ) : دانلود کنید

اندک اندک بیا غنچه دهن ، دسته دسته بچین گل ز چمن

قصه کمتر بگو جای سخن ، یک دو بوسه بزن بر لب من

دخترک ، لب چشمه مرو ، نازنین بدین عشوه مرو

مرگ من لب پشته بیا ، چشم تو مرا کشته بیا

تازه گلریز گل یار که ای ، الله الله ز گلزار که ای

جلوه بخش کدامین چمنی ، غمگسار شب تار که ای

در برم بیا خسته شدم ، من تو را کمر بسته شدم ( آهوی وحشی )

سوی مه از آن چشم سیه ، می کنی چه با عشوه نگه ( آهوی وحشی )

همچو می طعم عشقم بچشان ، دم به دم بوسه ده می بستان

ماه من روبرویم بنشین ، نم نمک آتش دل بنشان

ای خدا ، به مو شانه مزن ، چشمکه تو رندانه مزن

آتشم به کاشانه مزن ، طعنه ها به دیوانه مزن

 

 

(۳)

تصنیف کشتی ( در مایه ابوعطا ) : دانلود کنید

آواز ابوعطا : بیا و کشتی ما در شط شراب انداز     غریو و ولوله در جان شیخ و شاب انداز

مرا به کشتی باده در افکن ای ساقی     که گفته اند نکویی کن و در آب انداز

کشتی نشسته یار من ، آن نازنین نگار من

ای ناخدا تو می بری ، صبر من و قرار من

 

مرو مرو کشتی خدا را ، مبر مبر نگار ما را

مرو مرو که راز پنهان ، هر شب نماید آشکارا

مگر مگر باشد دل تو ، ای ناخدا از سنگ خارا

آخر مگر ای ناخدا ، ترسی نداری از خدا ، از من کنی یارم جدا

 

کشتی به دریا می رود ، آب از سر ما می رود

جانم رود ای ناخدا ، چون یار زیبا می رود

 

(۴)

تصنیف آی گفتی ( در دستگاه سه گاه ) : دانلود کنید

ای خوشا طی شود هجر یار آی گفتی     دوره محنت و انتظار آی گفتی

دیده دریا شد آخر از غم هجرانت     شور وصلش آتش زد بر دل یارانت

دوری جانان ، کی یابد پایان

 

ای خوشا طی شود هجر یار آی گفتی     دوره محنت و انتظار آی گفتی

ای صبا از یاری با یار من بگو     هر شب با یاد او ، باشدم گفتگو

کی خبر از ما ، دارد آن زیبا

ای خوشا طی شود هجر یار آی گفتی     دوره محنت و انتظار آی گفتی

 

شب مهتاب و می در ساغر آی گفتی     دور از چشم رقیب با دلبر آی گفتی

لذت از زندگی هرگز نبری ای دل     تا نگردد تو را وصل صنمی حاصل

صحبت خوبان ، را غنیمت دان

ای خوشا طی شود هجر یار آی گفتی     دوره محنت و انتظار آی گفتی

گر بگوید صبا ، کز وفا دلبرم     می آید در برم ، کی شود باورم

آن مه زیبا ، کرده ترک ما

ای خوشا طی شود هجر یار آی گفتی     دوره محنت و انتظار آی گفتی

 

(۵)

آواز شور : دانلود کنید

دیده از دیدار خوبان برگرفتن مشکل است     هر که ما را این نصیحت می کند بی حاصل است

زهر نزدیک خردمندان اگر چه قاتل است     چون ز دست دوست می گیری شفای عاجلست

آنکه می گوید نظر بر منظر خوبان مکن     آن خود این صورت همی بیند زمعنی غافلست

گر فراق افتد به صد منزل میان ما و دوست     همچنانش در میان جان شیرین منزلست

سعدیا سهل است با هرکس گرفتن دوستی     لیک چون پیوند شد خود باز کردن مشکل است

 

 

(۶)

تصنیف مویت بنازم ( در دستگاه سه گاه ) : دانلود کنید

 مویت بنازم که کمند عاشقان است     رویت بنازم کعبه ما بیدلان است

چه دیده ای ، صنما ، ز جفا ، که وفا ، نکنی ، با همزبانان ، عزیز من

مویت بنازم که کمند عاشقان است

 

روزی گزارم به سر کوی تو افتاد     چشمم بر آن نرگس جادوی تو افتاد

بیا بیا ، که دگر ، صنما ، بخدا ، دل ما ، خون شد زهجران ، عزیز من

مویت بنازم که کمند عاشقان است

 

یک شب تو در محفل ما بودی ، نبودی     مشکل گشای دل ما بودی ، نبودی

چه گویمت ، که تو چشم منی ، تو گل چمنی

( مویت بنازم ) 2 که کمند عاشقان است

 

با ما سر لطف و صفا داری ، نداری     با بیدلان مهر و وفا داری ، نداری

بالا بلندی ، که تو در ، نظری ، نبود خبری ، ما را ز ... ، عزیز من

مویت بنازم که کمند عاشقان است

 

 

(۷)

 

تصنیف دختر کردی ( در مایه دشتی ) : دانلود کنید

راه فیض آباد تنگ و تاریکه ، یک یاری دارم کمر باریکه

ای خدا مرا کشته ناز او ، تا کی من برقصم به ساز او

 

بیش از این ساقی می مده مستم ، مست چشمان مست او هستم

دل به موی آن نازنین بستم ، جام می همی افتد از دستم

 

شب رسیده و جاده باریکه ، خانه دوره و کوچه تاریکه

وای از دوری جانگداز او ، تا کی من برقصم به ساز او

 

چشم سرمستش خون کند به دل ، من بیاد وی او زمن غافل

من به او عاشق دل به او مایل ، دیوانه منم دلبرم عاقل

 

دختر کردی ، شد بلای جان ، زد به جانم خوش آتش سوزان

ای خدا مرا کشته ناز او ، تا کی من برقصم به ساز او

 

(۸)

 

 

 تصنیف شکر خند  ( در دستگاه همایون ) : دانلود کنید

 

صد بوسه از آن لعل شکر خند گرفتم     گاهی به تَشَر گاه به سوگند گرفتم

 

 

 

آنقدر ز لبش بوسه شیرین گرفتم     تا آنکه از آن لب مرض قند گرفتم

 

 

 

 

(۹)

تصنیف ای گل ( در دستگاه شورـ گوشه سلمک ) : دانلود کنید

(الف)

.

.

(ب)

گفتم که با مستان مرو ( رفتی ) ، چون گل به هر بستان مرو ( رفتی ) ، گفتم دلم بستان مرو ( رفتی )

رفتی جفا بر من روا ( دیدی ) ، نو بهار من دیدی چه ها ( دیدی ) ، گلزار من رنج و بلا ( دیدی )

از کنار من رفتی خطا ( دیدی ) ، تازه یار من جور و جفا ( دیدی )

(ج)

ای خدا بالای سری ( ای گل ) ، خِر زیر پات کن وای گلم ( ای گل ) ، مرد خوب و زن بدو ( ای گل )

از هم جدا کن وای گلم ( ای گل ) ، گل گلی گلی وای گلم ( ای گل ) ،................ بلبلی ( ای گل )

گل گلی گلی وای گلم ( ای گل ) ،..... دو زلفت سنبلی ( ای گل )

 

 

(۱۰)

تصنیف سخنی با دل ( در دستگاه همایون ) : دانلود کنید

چو نسیم صبا ، زچه باشی ای دل ، همه جا سرگردان

دل من مرو این ، ره نا پیدا را ، که ندارد پایان

مرو ای دیوانه مرو ، ز پی افسانه مرو

به خیالی خنده کنان ، به هوایی نعره زنان ، مشو ای دیوانه

 

همه شب ، زغمی ، به فغانی چون نی ، دل محزون تا کی

چه کنم ، دل من ، همه عمرم آخر ، به جفایت شد طی

تا کی ... از دستم تا کی ، سازی ز هوس پا مستم تا کی

سوزم ننشانی ، در خون بکشانی ، از تو بود ای دل من سوز پنهانی

 

 

تویی آن شبنم که به گل پا نگذاری     که تو تاب خنده هر غنچه نداری

تو همان داغی به دل لاله خونین     تو دلی در سینه هر عاشق زاری

که به غمها یاری

 

منبع:این متن توسط موسسه های زبان و ترجمه برگردان شده.

  nazarat()
ترجمه ی بیوگرافی / casar بهترین بازیگر ایرانی خارج از کشور nevisande: - ۱۳٩٢/٢/۱


ایمیرا قیصر یا کیسر-امیرا کاسار با پسوند تباری اصلی: امیرا زنگنه (Amira Casar) یک هنرپیشه ی فرانسوی است که در انگلستان ایرلند و فرانسه بزرگ شد. او بین سال های 1989 و2009  در 40 فیلم بازی کرد.amira zangeneh

 مادر او روسیه ای و پدر ایشان از تبار خالص کوردیش و از خاندان زنگنه است.(رجوع شود به مصاحبه های متعدد اینترنت)او بی شک در میان بازیگران مختلف ایرانی مهاجر خارج از کشور واژه ی بهترین و یا برترین را به ساده گی به خود اختصاص داده است و از تیپ شخصیتی اش میتوان بازی های درخشانش را تشخیص داد.(رجوع شود به یوتیوب و منابع اینترنتی و برخی فیلمهای او که در جامعه ی جهان سومی ما آسان بدست می آیند)

اوایل زندگی و زندگی شخصی

در انگلستان متولد شد و بعدا در انگلستان ایرلند و فرانسه بزرگ شد .Amira Casar نمایشنامه را در Conservatoire National d’art Dramatique de Paris مطالعه کرد. او انگلیسی و فرانسوی را به خوبی صحبت میکند و روی زبان آلمانی ایتالیایی و اسپانیایی کار کرده است و گوش فوق العاده ای برای لهجه ها و گویش ها دارد.

 

دوره ی کاری

کیسر در فیلم ها و تاتر به طور بین المللی و روی دو طرف کانال طرفدار پروژه های مستقل و قوی کار کرده است.

بعضی از فیلم ها و کارهای تلویزیونی اش عبارتند از: La Verite si je mens 1,2(معرفی کیسر به عنوان بهترین هنرپیشه ی جوان) در 1997 و 2000 . در سال 2000 Comment J’ai Tue Mon Pere  بوسیله ی Anne Fontaine . Carlos Saura’s Bunuel y la Messa Del Rei Salomon در سال 2001. David More’s Forty  برای کانال 4 در سال 2002 و Filles Perdues Cheveux Gras. Sylvia بوسیله ی کریستین جفس با گنیس پالترو و دنیل کریج در سال 2003.


آزادی بین المللی پیشرو و موجد کاترین بریلات استقلال دوزخ ( فستیوال فیلم تورنتو) در سال 2004. در سال 2005 او در The Larrieu Brother’s Peindre ou Faire I’ Amour  همراه Daniel Auteuil و The Quay Brother’s Piano Tuner of Earthquakes ظاهر شد. Tony Gatlif’s Transylvania در سال 2006.

در سال 2007, Casar با هنرمند سوفی کال (Sophie Calle) برای برقراری جشنواره ی دوساله ی ونیز Prenez soin de vousو با کارگردان لیتیتیا مسون (Laetitia Masson) برای فیلم Coupable همکاری کرد. در سال 2008, با کارگردان جدید آلمانی Werner Schroeter در آخرین فیلمش Nuit de Chienقرارداد بست.

 

در سال 2009, او نقش اصلی را در فیلم Eleonore Faucher به نام Gamines بازی کرد. برای توصیفش به عنوان Dora Maar , هنرمند سورئالیست و الهه ی شعر و هنرهای زیبای پیکاسو در La Femme qui Pleure au Chapeau Rouge,برنده ی جایزه ی بهترین هنرپیشه در فستیوال فیلم تلویزیونی La Rochelle  شد.


در سال 2011 و 2012 , در 4 فیلم بازی کرد: فیلم استقلال بزار مردم بروند (let my people go) ساخته ی مکائیل بوش, سریال بسیار موفق فرانسوی به نام La Verite si je Mens ! 3, نشان دادنفیلم به زبان انگلیسی بوسیله ی Eran Riklis با Dany Huston .در سال 2013, در توافق Mickael Kohlhaas کلیست بوسیله ی Arnaud Des Pallieres با Mads Mikkelsen  و در Spiritismبوسیله ی کارگردان کانادایی Guy Maddin ظاهر خواهد شد.


کارهای روی صحنه اش شامل Lemon و Aunt Dan والاس شاون کارگردانی شده بوسیله ی Tom Cairns , تاتر آلمیدا, نقش عنوان در Hedda Gabler تاتر Petit در پاریس, تولید 2009 اولیور پای Les Enfants de Saturne در تاتر ملی در L’Odeon در پاریس . در سال 2011, او در نقش عنوان پترا در The Bitter Tears of Petra Von Kant بوسیله ی Fassbinder ظاهر شد و تحسین زیادی در Jeanne d Arc au Bucher در مرکز باربیکن با ارکستر سمفونی لندن کسب کرد.


  =================

تصاویر فراوان از گوگل که مطرح بودن او را و یا تلاش و زحمت و علاقه ی او به کارش را ثابت میکند و همچنین استعداد ایرانی اش را:google pictures,amira zangene

تکرار کنم که ممکن است همچنان سایه ی مسدود کردن تصاویر این بلاگ دنبال این بیوگرافی ها باشد.که مهم نیست.

  

 

 

 

 

  

 

  

 

 ===============

Filmography

 Activities

  • Fencing
  • Horse-riding (include side saddle and jumping)
  • Swimming
  • Waterskiing
  • Snowskiing
  • Motorbike riding
  • Martial Arts
  • Athletics

Languages

Speaking languages

  • French
  • English
  • Italien

Experiences in movies

  • German
  • Spanish

-------------------------

عکسهای کم و کوتاه از او:

 

 


 



iranian kurdish and rusian actor

 منبع:این بیوگرافی توسط موسسات زبان و ترجمه برگردان شده و فاقد ایراد هم نیست.

  nazarat()
ترجمه ی بیوگرافی عاتف ییلماز/بزرگترین کارگردان سینمای ترکیه nevisande: - ۱۳٩٢/٢/۱

کارگردانی 120 فیلم بلند مطرح سینمایی/تهیه کننده و سناریست حدود 60 اثر

----------------------

عاتف ایلماز باتیبکی  (9 دسامبر 1925- 5 می 2006) یک کارگردان و نویسنده ی نمایشنامه و تهیه کننده ی مشهور ترکی بود. او در صنعت فیلم ترکیه یک افسانه بود و 119 فیلم را کارگردانی کرد. او از سال 1951 , 53 نمایشنامه را نوشت و 28 فیلم را تهیه کرد. تقریبا در هر دوره ی صنعت فیلم ترکیه فعال بود. علی رغم اینکه فیلم های متعددی را کارگردانی کرد, اکثر آنها با کیفیت و دارای پیام بودند.

 atif yilmaz

اوایل زندگی

عاتف ایلماز در 25 دسامبر سال 1925 در مرسین در ترکیه از یک خانواده ی کردی  که اصلیتشان Palu بود به دنیا آمد.(منظور مترجم ناحیه ی ایلازیغ است) بعد از تمام کردن دبیرستان در مرسین , به دانشکده ی حقوق دانشگاه استانبول پیوست. به خاطر علاقه اش به هنر , حقوق را رها کرد و وارد آموزشکده ی نقاشی آکادمی هنرهای زیبا در استانبول شد. بعد از فارغ التحصیل از آکادمی, بعضی کارهای نقاشی را در کارگاه ها انجام داد. همانگونه که بعدا اظهار داشت تحصیلش در رشته ی نقاشی به او در کارگردانی فیلم هایش کمک کرد.

در زندگی خصوصی اش سه بار ازدواج کرد. همسر اولش به نام نورهان نور هنرپیشه بود. بعد از طلاق همسر دومش , نویسنده ی داستان های نمایشی آیش شاسا, با دنیز ترکالی دختر ودات ترکالی رمان نویس , نویسنده و کارگردان فیلم اهل ترکیه ازدواج کرد. عاتف ایلماز یک دختر به نام کزبان آرکا از ازدواج اولش دارد.

 

دوره ی فیلم

در ابتدا او به عنوان منتقد فیلم کار میکرد, نقاشی هایی را کشید و فیلم هایی را برای کسب مخارج زندگی نوشت. بعد از کارگردانی دو فیلم به عنوان کمک کارگردان Semih Evin در 1950 , دوره ی کارگردانی اش با فیلم Kanli Feryat شروع شد. در سال 1960 , شرکت فیلم سازی اش را با نام "یرلی فیلم " با هنرپیشه اورهان گانشیرای تاسیس کرد.

مهمترین فیلم هایش عبارتند از: Hickirik (هق هق),  Alageyik (آهوی زرد), Suclu ( گناه اول) , Seni Kaybedersem (اگر تو را از دست دهم) , Yaban Gulu (رز وحشی), Kesanli Ali Destani  ( رزم علی کسانلی) , Tacsiz Kral (پادشاه بی تاج) , Topragin Kani (خون زمین), Olum Tarlasi (مزرعه ی مرگ), Utanc (شرم), Zavallilar (مردم فقیر), Selvi Boylum, Al Yazmalim (دخترم با روسری قرمز) , Baskin (حمله), Adak (قربانی), Bir Yudum Sevgi (مزه ی عشق), Adi Vasfiye (نامش واسفیه اس), Berdel Dus Gezginleri (پیاده روی بعد از نیمه شب) , Eylul Firtinast (بعد از پاییز) و Mine (مال من). 

او فیلم هایش را روان و با پیام اجتماعی ساخت. اکثر موضوعات فیلم هایش در روزهایی که ساخته میشدند ممنوع بودند. مخصوصا mine  و نامش واسفیه است با موضوعشان رو جنسیت و واکنش جامعه , در آن زمان یک انقلاب بودند.

او هرگز فیلم سازی را در طول عمرش رها نکرد حتی وقتی که صنعت به دلایل اقتصادی ساخت فیلم را متوقف کرد.

عاتف ایلماز نقش مهمی در دوره ی حرفه ای کارگردانان برجسته ی فیلم ترکی مانند Halt Refig,    Yilmaz Guney, Serif Goren و Ali Ozgenturk داشت.

در طول فستیوال فیلم آنتالیا در سپتامبر سال 2005 , به خاطر درد معده و روده بستری شد و در 5 می سال 2006 در استانبول فوت کرد.

 ----------

و ستاره گان در افسانه ی آتیف ییلماز هم می درخشند:

ییلماز گونای(کرال کرالی)-فاطما گیریک-طارق آکان-تورکان شورای-هوولیا اوشار-هوولیا کوچ گیت-قدیر اینانیر-عزت گونی-مژده آر-تامر ییگیت-سردار گوکهان-آژدا پکان-امل سایین-سوزان آوسی-فیلیز آکین-آیهان ایشیک-کارتال تیبت-و.......

منبع:این متن کوتاه است و توسط موسسات زبان ترجمه شده است.

  nazarat()
dead forum|Anjoman-e morde‌hā  
Dustān-e man Qalam bān | Their pens safheye | mesr Rangbāreh | Colours About Antiquities | žarfsām A voice | Xod sedā Literature, poetry | Še’rābeh Xod-sahne bādān |director-1 Siaās Xān | Policys Afsāne‌ye do mard | g××× k safahaat | Oburche numberone1| sedāsouye sarnevešt Dān nāme | Traditional knowledge Kojāy Kohanā |whither Navāzin | Music Besyār andi‌šān | philosophy